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Review

How Cardiac Embryology Translates into Clinical Arrhythmias

1
Department of Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Anatomy & Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Einthovenweg 20, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
3
Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
4
Department of Medical Biology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas Brand and Takashi Mikawa
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(6), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8060070
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 31 May 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 13 June 2021
The electrophysiological signatures of the myocardium in cardiac structures, such as the atrioventricular node, pulmonary veins or the right ventricular outflow tract, are established during development by the spatial and temporal expression of transcription factors that guide expression of specific ion channels. Genome-wide association studies have shown that small variations in genetic regions are key to the expression of these transcription factors and thereby modulate the electrical function of the heart. Moreover, mutations in these factors are found in arrhythmogenic pathologies such as congenital atrioventricular block, as well as in specific forms of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. In this review, we discuss the developmental origin of distinct electrophysiological structures in the heart and their involvement in cardiac arrhythmias. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac development; arrhythmias; re-entry; transcription factors cardiac development; arrhythmias; re-entry; transcription factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rivaud, M.R.; Blok, M.; Jongbloed, M.R.M.; Boukens, B.J. How Cardiac Embryology Translates into Clinical Arrhythmias. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8, 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8060070

AMA Style

Rivaud MR, Blok M, Jongbloed MRM, Boukens BJ. How Cardiac Embryology Translates into Clinical Arrhythmias. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2021; 8(6):70. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8060070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rivaud, Mathilde R., Michiel Blok, Monique R.M. Jongbloed, and Bastiaan J. Boukens 2021. "How Cardiac Embryology Translates into Clinical Arrhythmias" Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease 8, no. 6: 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8060070

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