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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5030037

A Hearty Dose of Noncoding RNAs: The Imprinted DLK1-DIO3 Locus in Cardiac Development and Disease

Department of Biology, Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
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Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non Coding RNAs in the Cardiovascular System)
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Abstract

The imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 genomic region harbors a noncoding RNA cluster encoding over fifty microRNAs (miRNAs), three long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) gene array. These distinct noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are thought to arise from a single polycistronic transcript that is subsequently processed into individual ncRNAs, each with important roles in diverse cellular contexts. Considering these ncRNAs are derived from a polycistron, it is possible that some coordinately regulate discrete biological processes in the heart. Here, we provide a comprehensive summary of Dlk1-Dio3 miRNAs and lncRNAs, as they are currently understood in the cellular and organ-level context of the cardiovascular system. Highlighted are expression profiles, mechanistic contributions, and functional roles of these ncRNAs in heart development and disease. Notably, a number of these ncRNAs are implicated in processes often perturbed in heart disease, including proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and fibrosis. However, most literature falls short of characterizing precise mechanisms for many of these ncRNAs, warranting further investigation. Taken together, the Dlk1-Dio3 locus represents a largely unexplored noncoding regulator of cardiac homeostasis, harboring numerous ncRNAs that may serve as therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac; proliferation; hypertrophy; fibrosis; microRNA; long noncoding RNA; imprinting; epigenetics cardiac; proliferation; hypertrophy; fibrosis; microRNA; long noncoding RNA; imprinting; epigenetics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Dill, T.L.; Naya, F.J. A Hearty Dose of Noncoding RNAs: The Imprinted DLK1-DIO3 Locus in Cardiac Development and Disease. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5, 37.

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