Lower urinary tract neoplasia in companion animals is a debilitating and often life-threatening disease. Tumors of the bladder, urethra, and prostate often occur independently, although extension of these tumors into adjacent regions of the lower urinary tract is documented frequently. The most common lower urinary tract tumor in dogs and cats is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). In both dogs and cats, TCC affecting the urinary bladder is generally considered to be highly aggressive with both local and metastatic disease potential, and this disease poses unique treatment challenges. Whereas much literature exists regarding the TCC disease process, treatment options, and prognosis in dogs, relatively few studies on feline TCC have been published due to the lower incidence of TCC in this species. Prostate tumors, most commonly adenocarcinomas, occur less commonly in dogs and cats but serve an important role as a comparative model for prostate neoplasia in humans. This article serves as a review of the current information regarding canine and feline lower urinary tract neoplasia as well as the relevance of these diseases with respect to their human counterparts.
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