2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Tapping and Harvesting
2.2. Preparation and Usage of the Anti-Fermentation Solution (AFS)
2.3. Processing and Storage of Harvested Neera
- Microfiltration: The raw Neera was filtered through micro filters with a pore size of 100 microns under aseptic conditions.
- Pasteurization: The filtered raw Neera was stored in a sterilized vessel for pasteurization for 10–15 min at a temperature range of 75–85 °C. A mild agitation was inevitable during pasteurization. The temperature was kept constant at 80 °C during pasteurization by remote control.
- Bottling: The pasteurized Neera was bottled by an automatic bottling machine with a volume (200 mL) in polypropylene (PP) bottles and 300 mL in glass bottles and capped and sealed automatically. The entire steps were done in a closed system for avoiding further contamination during processing.
- Storage: Shelf life was checked periodically by analyzing the pH, brix value and nutritional components.
2.4. Quality Analysis of Neera
2.5. Estimation of Alcohol Content
2.6. Estimation of Vital Nutrients
2.7. Oral Toxicity Test and Glycemic Index of Processed Neera
2.8. Production of Value-Added Products
- Neera Concentrate: Neera concentrate—commercially called Neera squash—was developed by concentrating the Neera drink from a brix value 14 to 45–50 using rotary vacuum distillation under controlled temperatures.
- Neera Sugar: The process of making Neera sugar was similar to that of the Neera concentrate. At the level of getting the Neera concentrate of a brix value 45–50, it was again subjected to further vacuum distillation process until the brix value came to the level of 55–60 with a texture of a semisolid form. This semisolid Neera thick concentrate was transferred to a wide metal pan and kept in an incubator at 70 °C for overnight. After proper dehydration, the solidified Neera as white a Neera sugar was powdered in a blender and bottled.
2.9. Statistical Analysis
3.1. Tapping and Harvesting
3.2. Anti-Fermentation Solution: Mode of Action of AFS
3.3. Processing and Bottling of Neera
3.4. Microbial Load of Raw and Processed Neera
3.5. Alcohol Content
3.6. Nutritional Composition of Processed Neera
3.7. Acute Oral Toxicity Data of the Neera Drink
3.8. Glycemic Index of Neera
3.9. Value-Added Products
Conflicts of Interest
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|Organism||Raw Neera without AFS||Raw Neera with AFS|
|Total Bacterial Count/mL (CFU/mL)||102,000||Less than 10 CFU|
|Total Fungal Count/mL (CFU/mL)||Less than 10 CFU||Less than 10 CFU|
|Components||Quantity/100 mL||S.D. Mean|
|Proximate composition||Food Energy||74.86 Kcal||0.51|
|Lipids||Unsaturated fatty acids (Oleic & Linoleic acids)||80 mg||0.10|
|Saturated fatty acids (Lauric and Myristic acids)||NIL||0.47|
|Components||Quantity/100 mL||S.D. Mean|
|Components||Quantity/100 mL||S.D. Mean|
|Amino acids||Aspartic acid||4 mg||0.08|
|Vitamins||Vitamin B2||15.4 µg||0.51|
|Vitamin B3||210 µg||0.78|
|Vitamin B6||30 µg||0.56|
|Vitamin C||65 mg||0.77|
|Vitamin A (As retinol) (One IU Vitamin A is equivalent to 0.3 µg of retinol)||4.88 IU||0.15|
|Groups||Serum Glucose (mmol/L)|
|O min||15 min||30 min||45 min||60 min||90 min||120 min|
|Glucose (1 g/Kg rat b.w.)||Mean||4.00||9.91||9.43||9.19||8.72||7.50||6.28|
|Neera (1 mL/Kg rat b.w.)||Mean||4.03||4.41||4.37||4.37||4.25||4.08||4.13|
|Groups||Increment Area under Curve|
(1 g/Kg rat b.w)
(1 mL/kg rat b.w)
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