The ultimate goal of research on platelet concentrates (PCs) is to develop a more predictable PC therapy. Because platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a representative PC, was identified as a possible therapeutic agent for bone augmentation in the field of oral surgery, PRP and its derivative, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), have been increasingly applied in a regenerative medicine. However, a rise in the rate of recurrence (e.g., in tendon and ligament injuries) and adverse (or nonsignificant) clinical outcomes associated with PC therapy have raised fundamental questions regarding the validity of the therapy. Thus, rigorous evidence obtained from large, high-quality randomized controlled trials must be presented to the concerned regulatory authorities of individual countries or regions. For the approval of the regulatory authorities, clinicians and research investigators should understand the real nature of PCs and PC therapy (i.e., adjuvant therapy), standardize protocols of preparation (e.g., choice of centrifuges and tubes) and clinical application (e.g., evaluation of recipient conditions), design bias-minimized randomized clinical trials, and recognize superfluous brand competitions that delay sound progress. In this review, we retrospect the recent past of PC research, reconfirm our ultimate goals, and discuss what will need to be done in future.
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