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Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040094

Viscous Fingering of Miscible Liquids in Porous and Swellable Media for Rapid Diagnostic Tests

1
School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
2
School of Biological & Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Microfluidics in Biology)
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Abstract

In lateral flow and colorimetric test strip diagnostics, the effects of capillary action and diffusion on speed and sensitivity have been well studied. However, another form of fluid motion can be generated due to stresses and instabilities generated in pores when two miscible liquids with different densities and viscosities come into contact. This study explored how a swellable test pad can be deployed for measuring urea in saliva by partially prefilling the pad with a miscible solution of greater viscosity and density. The resultant Korteweg stresses and viscous fingering patterns were analyzed using solutions with added food color through video analysis and image processing. Image analysis was simplified using the saturation channel after converting RGB image sequences to HSB. The kinetics of liquid mixing agreed with capillary displacement results for miscible liquids undergoing movement from Korteweg stresses. After capillary filling, there was significant movement of liquid due to these fluidic effects, which led to mixing of the saliva sample with an enzyme test solution. Owing to the simplicity and speed of this test method, urea can be analyzed with an electronic nose over a useful range for detecting salivary urea concentration for rapid and early detection of dehydration. View Full-Text
Keywords: korteweg stresses; viscous fingering; glycerol; saliva; urease; ammonia; salivary urea nitrogen; diagnostic test strip; hue; saturation; brightness (HSB); electronic nose korteweg stresses; viscous fingering; glycerol; saliva; urease; ammonia; salivary urea nitrogen; diagnostic test strip; hue; saturation; brightness (HSB); electronic nose
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Clingan, H.; Rusk, D.; Smith, K.; Garcia, A.A. Viscous Fingering of Miscible Liquids in Porous and Swellable Media for Rapid Diagnostic Tests. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 94.

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