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Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040093

A Review on Bioconversion of Agro-Industrial Wastes to Industrially Important Enzymes

1
School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street, D01 HV58 Dublin, Ireland
2
School of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, D08 NF82 Dublin, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 28 October 2018
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Abstract

Agro-industrial waste is highly nutritious in nature and facilitates microbial growth. Most agricultural wastes are lignocellulosic in nature; a large fraction of it is composed of carbohydrates. Agricultural residues can thus be used for the production of various value-added products, such as industrially important enzymes. Agro-industrial wastes, such as sugar cane bagasse, corn cob and rice bran, have been widely investigated via different fermentation strategies for the production of enzymes. Solid-state fermentation holds much potential compared with submerged fermentation methods for the utilization of agro-based wastes for enzyme production. This is because the physical–chemical nature of many lignocellulosic substrates naturally lends itself to solid phase culture, and thereby represents a means to reap the acknowledged potential of this fermentation method. Recent studies have shown that pretreatment technologies can greatly enhance enzyme yields by several fold. This article gives an overview of how agricultural waste can be productively harnessed as a raw material for fermentation. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of studies conducted in the production of different commercially important enzymes using lignocellulosic food waste has been provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: agro-industry waste; enzymes; solid-state fermentation; pretreatment; optimization agro-industry waste; enzymes; solid-state fermentation; pretreatment; optimization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ravindran, R.; Hassan, S.S.; Williams, G.A.; Jaiswal, A.K. A Review on Bioconversion of Agro-Industrial Wastes to Industrially Important Enzymes. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 93.

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