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Hydrological Modelling for Water Resource Management in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool: A Case Study in Northern Afghanistan

1
Department of Development Technology, Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC), Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan
2
Water and Environment Engineering Department, Mining and Environment Engineering Faculty, Balkh University, Mazari Sharif 1701, Afghanistan
3
Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering Program, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010016
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
To address the issues of water shortages and the loss of agricultural products at harvest in northern Afghanistan, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied for agricultural water resource management by simulating surface runoff in the Balkhab River basin (BRB) on a monthly basis from 2013 to 2018. Elevation, slope, land cover data, soil maps, and climate data such as temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation were used as inputs in the SWAT modelling. During the dry season from July to September, the water resources downstream were basically attributed to baseflow from groundwater. In the calibration, the groundwater baseflow was estimated by analyzing station-recorded discharges for 190 springs. With the estimated baseflow, the SWAT results were markedly improved, with R2 values of 0.70, 0.86, 0.67, and 0.80, Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE) values of 0.52, 0.83, 0.40, and 0.57, and percent bias (PBIAS) values of 23.4, −8.5, 23.4, and 17.5 in the four different subbasins. In the validation, the statistics also indicated satisfactory results. The output of this study can be used in agricultural water resource management with irrigation practices and further in the assessment of climate change effects on the water resources in the BRB. View Full-Text
Keywords: watershed modelling; SWAT; groundwater baseflow; snowmelt; irrigation; Balkhab River basin watershed modelling; SWAT; groundwater baseflow; snowmelt; irrigation; Balkhab River basin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussainzada, W.; Lee, H.S. Hydrological Modelling for Water Resource Management in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool: A Case Study in Northern Afghanistan. Hydrology 2021, 8, 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010016

AMA Style

Hussainzada W, Lee HS. Hydrological Modelling for Water Resource Management in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool: A Case Study in Northern Afghanistan. Hydrology. 2021; 8(1):16. https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010016

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hussainzada, Wahidullah, and Han S. Lee 2021. "Hydrological Modelling for Water Resource Management in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool: A Case Study in Northern Afghanistan" Hydrology 8, no. 1: 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010016

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