Lake ice models are a vital tool for studying the response of ice-covered lakes to changing climates throughout the world. The Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo) is a one-dimensional freshwater ice cover model that simulates Arctic and sub-Arctic lake ice cover well. Modelling ice cover in temperate regions has presented challenges due to the differences in ice composition between northern and temperate region lake ice. This study presents a comparison of measured and modelled ice regimes, with a focus on refining CLIMo for temperate regions. The study sites include two temperate region lakes (MacDonald Lake and Clear Lake, Central Ontario) and two High Arctic lakes (Resolute Lake and Small Lake, Nunavut) where climate and ice cover information have been recorded over three seasons. The ice cover simulations were validated with a combination of time lapse imagery, field measurements of snow depth, snow density, ice thickness and albedo data, and historical ice records from the Canadian Ice Database (for Resolute Lake). Simulations of High Arctic lake ice cover show good agreement with previous studies for ice-on and ice-off dates (MAE 6 to 8 days). Unadjusted simulations for the temperate region lakes show good ice-on timing, but an under-representation of ice thickness, and earlier complete ice-off timing (~3 to 5 weeks). Field measurements were used to adjust the albedo values used in CLIMo, which resulted in improvements to both simulated ice thickness (~3 cm MAE compared to manual measurements), and ice-off timing, within 0 to 7 days (2 days MAE) of observations. These findings suggest regionally specific measurements of albedo can improve the accuracy of lake ice simulations, which further our knowledge of the response of temperate and High Arctic lake ice regimes to climate conditions.
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