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Article

The Influence of Snow and Ice Albedo towards Improved Lake Ice Simulations

1
Department of Geography, Geomatics and Environment, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6, Canada
2
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 1G3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010011
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 3 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 16 January 2021
Lake ice models are a vital tool for studying the response of ice-covered lakes to changing climates throughout the world. The Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo) is a one-dimensional freshwater ice cover model that simulates Arctic and sub-Arctic lake ice cover well. Modelling ice cover in temperate regions has presented challenges due to the differences in ice composition between northern and temperate region lake ice. This study presents a comparison of measured and modelled ice regimes, with a focus on refining CLIMo for temperate regions. The study sites include two temperate region lakes (MacDonald Lake and Clear Lake, Central Ontario) and two High Arctic lakes (Resolute Lake and Small Lake, Nunavut) where climate and ice cover information have been recorded over three seasons. The ice cover simulations were validated with a combination of time lapse imagery, field measurements of snow depth, snow density, ice thickness and albedo data, and historical ice records from the Canadian Ice Database (for Resolute Lake). Simulations of High Arctic lake ice cover show good agreement with previous studies for ice-on and ice-off dates (MAE 6 to 8 days). Unadjusted simulations for the temperate region lakes show good ice-on timing, but an under-representation of ice thickness, and earlier complete ice-off timing (~3 to 5 weeks). Field measurements were used to adjust the albedo values used in CLIMo, which resulted in improvements to both simulated ice thickness (~3 cm MAE compared to manual measurements), and ice-off timing, within 0 to 7 days (2 days MAE) of observations. These findings suggest regionally specific measurements of albedo can improve the accuracy of lake ice simulations, which further our knowledge of the response of temperate and High Arctic lake ice regimes to climate conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: lake ice; modelling; albedo; snow; arctic; temperate region; ice thickness; observation data lake ice; modelling; albedo; snow; arctic; temperate region; ice thickness; observation data
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MDPI and ACS Style

Robinson, A.L.; Ariano, S.S.; Brown, L.C. The Influence of Snow and Ice Albedo towards Improved Lake Ice Simulations. Hydrology 2021, 8, 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010011

AMA Style

Robinson AL, Ariano SS, Brown LC. The Influence of Snow and Ice Albedo towards Improved Lake Ice Simulations. Hydrology. 2021; 8(1):11. https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010011

Chicago/Turabian Style

Robinson, Alexis L., Sarah S. Ariano, and Laura C. Brown. 2021. "The Influence of Snow and Ice Albedo towards Improved Lake Ice Simulations" Hydrology 8, no. 1: 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010011

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