Previous Article in Journal
UAV Monitoring of Stream Restorations
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Hydrology 2019, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6020030

Geostatistical Distribution and Contamination Status of Heavy Metals in the Sediment of Perak River, Malaysia

1
Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Sonapur 3814, Bangladesh
2
Faculty of Earth Science University, Jeli Campus, University Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli 17600, Malaysia
3
Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Sonapur 3814, Bangladesh
4
Forest Biotechnology Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, Selangor 52109, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
  |  
PDF [3215 KB, uploaded 10 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Heavy metal pollution is one of the major environmental issues in recent decades owing to the rapid increase in urbanisation and industrialisation. Sediments usually act as sinks for heavy metals due to their complex physical and chemical adsorption mechanisms. In this study, heavy metals like lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe) in the surface sediment from 15 location (upstream and downstream) on the Perak River, Malaysia were investigated by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The geostatistical prediction map showed the range of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Fe concentration in upstream area was 14.56–27.0 µg/g, 20–51.27 µg/g, 1.51–3.0 µg/g, 6.6–19.12 µg/g and 20.24–56.58%, respectively, and in downstream areas was 27.6–60.76 µg/g, 49.04–160.5 µg/g, 2.77–4.02 µg/g, 9.82–59.99 µg/g and 31.34–39.5%, respectively. Based on the enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index, Cd was found to be the most dominant pollutant in the study area. Pollution load index, sediment quality guidelines and sediment environmental toxicity quotient data showed that the downstream sediment was more polluted than the upstream sediment in the Perak River. The multivariate analysis showed that Pb, Zn and Cu mainly originated from natural sources with minor contribution from human activities, whereas Fe and Cd originated from various industrial and agricultural activities along the studied area. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; sediment; risk assessment; geostatistical distribution; multivariate analysis; Perak river heavy metals; sediment; risk assessment; geostatistical distribution; multivariate analysis; Perak river
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Salam, M.A.; Paul, S.C.; Shaari, F.I.; Rak, A.E.; Ahmad, R.B.; Kadir, W.R. Geostatistical Distribution and Contamination Status of Heavy Metals in the Sediment of Perak River, Malaysia. Hydrology 2019, 6, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Hydrology EISSN 2306-5338 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top