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Hydrology 2019, 6(1), 22;

Long Term Historic Changes in the Flow of Lesser Zab River, Iraq

College of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, Hubei, China
Department of Petroleum, Koya Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil 44001, Kurdistan, Iraq
Department of Architectural, Cihan University Campus/Sulaimaniya, Sulaimaniya 46001, Kurdistan, Iraq
Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Ibn Khaldun (UIKA), Bogor. Jalan KH Sholeh Iskandar KM.2, Kedung Badak, Tanah Sereal, Kota Bogor, Jawa Barat 16162, Indonesia
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal 90150, Pakistan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
PDF [1579 KB, uploaded 13 March 2019]


The assessment of trends in river flows has become of interest to the scientific community in order to understand the changing characteristics of flow due to climate change. In this study, the trends in river flow of Dukan Dam located in the northern part of Iraq were assessed. The assessment was carried out for the period 1964 to 2013 using Sen’s slope and the Mann–Kendall test. Sen’s slope was used to assess the magnitude of change while the Mann–Kendall trend test was used to confirm the significance of trends. The results of the study showed that there was a decreasing trend in river flow both annually and for all individual months. The highest decreasing trend of −5.08846 m3/month was noticed in April, while the lowest change of −1.06022 m3/month was noticed in November. The annual flow also showed a significant decrease at a rate of −1.912 m3/year at a 95% level of confidence. Additionally, the findings of the study also confirmed that a decrease in precipitation and the construction of hydraulic structures reduced the flow in the river. The findings of the study suggest that decreasing trends may cause a water-scarce situation in the future if proper adaptation measures are not taken. View Full-Text
Keywords: river flow trends; climate change; Mann–Kendall; Sens’s slope; Iraq river flow trends; climate change; Mann–Kendall; Sens’s slope; Iraq

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Ali, R.; Ismael, A.; Heryansyah, A.; Nawaz, N. Long Term Historic Changes in the Flow of Lesser Zab River, Iraq. Hydrology 2019, 6, 22.

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