Next Article in Journal
Flood Risk Analysis in Lower Part of Markham River Based on Multi-Criteria Decision Approach (MCDA)
Previous Article in Journal
Conditions for the Occurrence of Slaking and Other Disaggregation Processes under Rainfall
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison between Snow Albedo Obtained from Landsat TM, ETM+ Imagery and the SPOT VEGETATION Albedo Product in a Mediterranean Mountainous Site
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Hydrology 2016, 3(3), 28;

Spatiotemporal Variations in Snow and Soil Frost—A Review of Measurement Techniques

Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Eng., Luleå University of Technology (LTU), SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
Research and Development, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), SE-601 76 Norrköping, Sweden
Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health—Institute of Groundwater Ecology, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-857 64 Neuherberg, Germany
Water Resources and Environmental Eng. Research Group, University of Oulu, FI-900 14 Oulu, Finland
Department of Water Resources Eng., Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juraj Parajka
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snow Hydrology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [716 KB, uploaded 19 July 2016]   |  


Large parts of the northern hemisphere are covered by snow and seasonal frost. Climate warming is affecting spatiotemporal variations of snow and frost, hence influencing snowmelt infiltration, aquifer recharge and river runoff patterns. Measurement difficulties have hampered progress in properly assessing how variations in snow and frost impact snowmelt infiltration. This has led to contradicting findings. Some studies indicate that groundwater recharge response is scale dependent. It is thus important to measure snow and soil frost properties with temporal and spatial scales appropriate to improve infiltration process knowledge. The main aim with this paper is therefore to review ground based methods to measure snow properties (depth, density, water equivalent, wetness, and layering) and soil frost properties (depth, water and ice content, permeability, and distance to groundwater) and to make recommendations for process studies aiming to improve knowledge regarding infiltration in regions with seasonal frost. Ground-based radar (GBR) comes in many different combinations and can, depending on design, be used to assess both spatial and temporal variations in snow and frost so combinations of GBR and tracer techniques can be recommended and new promising methods (auocostics and self potential) are evolving, but the study design must be adapted to the scales, the aims and the resources of the study. View Full-Text
Keywords: snow; seasonal frost; spatiotemporal variation; measurement techniques snow; seasonal frost; spatiotemporal variation; measurement techniques

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lundberg, A.; Gustafsson, D.; Stumpp, C.; Kløve, B.; Feiccabrino, J. Spatiotemporal Variations in Snow and Soil Frost—A Review of Measurement Techniques. Hydrology 2016, 3, 28.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Hydrology EISSN 2306-5338 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top