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Open AccessReview

Spatiotemporal Variations in Snow and Soil Frost—A Review of Measurement Techniques

1
Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Eng., Luleå University of Technology (LTU), SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
2
Research and Development, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), SE-601 76 Norrköping, Sweden
3
Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health—Institute of Groundwater Ecology, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-857 64 Neuherberg, Germany
4
Water Resources and Environmental Eng. Research Group, University of Oulu, FI-900 14 Oulu, Finland
5
Department of Water Resources Eng., Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Juraj Parajka
Hydrology 2016, 3(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology3030028
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snow Hydrology)
Large parts of the northern hemisphere are covered by snow and seasonal frost. Climate warming is affecting spatiotemporal variations of snow and frost, hence influencing snowmelt infiltration, aquifer recharge and river runoff patterns. Measurement difficulties have hampered progress in properly assessing how variations in snow and frost impact snowmelt infiltration. This has led to contradicting findings. Some studies indicate that groundwater recharge response is scale dependent. It is thus important to measure snow and soil frost properties with temporal and spatial scales appropriate to improve infiltration process knowledge. The main aim with this paper is therefore to review ground based methods to measure snow properties (depth, density, water equivalent, wetness, and layering) and soil frost properties (depth, water and ice content, permeability, and distance to groundwater) and to make recommendations for process studies aiming to improve knowledge regarding infiltration in regions with seasonal frost. Ground-based radar (GBR) comes in many different combinations and can, depending on design, be used to assess both spatial and temporal variations in snow and frost so combinations of GBR and tracer techniques can be recommended and new promising methods (auocostics and self potential) are evolving, but the study design must be adapted to the scales, the aims and the resources of the study. View Full-Text
Keywords: snow; seasonal frost; spatiotemporal variation; measurement techniques snow; seasonal frost; spatiotemporal variation; measurement techniques
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lundberg, A.; Gustafsson, D.; Stumpp, C.; Kløve, B.; Feiccabrino, J. Spatiotemporal Variations in Snow and Soil Frost—A Review of Measurement Techniques. Hydrology 2016, 3, 28.

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