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A Comparative Study of Ultrasound Biodiesel Production Using Different Homogeneous Catalysts
Open AccessArticle

Quality Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from Used Cooking Oil in Southern Europe

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Lab, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
Energy and Environment Agency of Arrábida, 2910-422 Setúbal, Portugal
Local Energy Agency Province of Cosenza, 87100 Cosenza, Italy
Energy Management Agency Province of Cádiz, 11–24008 León, Spain
Regional Energy Agency for Barreiro, Moita, Montijo and Alcochete, 2834-005 Barreiro, Portugal
ELIN Biofuels S.A., 14564 Athens, Greece
Municipality of Castrolibero, 87040 Castrolibero, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ChemEngineering 2019, 3(1), 19;
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bio-Fuels Production)
The potential of households’ used cooking oil (UCO) recycling for biodiesel production is massive. This study aims to promote the shift from UCO inappropriate disposal to sustainable recycling. UCO is classified as municipal waste under the code 20 01 25 (edible oils and fats), according to the European Waste Catalogue. Inappropriate UCO disposal increases the operating cost of wastewater treatment, the risk of groundwater contamination, as well as the greenhouse gas emissions that are associated with its biodegradation. Recycling UCO-to-biodiesel offers a sustainable solution in the exploitation of a problematic waste and its transformation into an energy resource, thus contributing to the reduction of environmental pollution and fossil fuel dependence. This paper includes critical recommendations in order to overcome bottlenecks to successfully promote the UCO-to-biodiesel chain. Quality control of the biodiesel—produced exclusively from UCO—was performed according to the European Standard EN 14214 and the results are presented in the paper. The analysis studies the outcomes from four Southern European countries (Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Greece), which hold the top four places in annual per capita olive oil consumption in the European Union (EU). View Full-Text
Keywords: used cooking oil; biodiesel; quality control; circular economy used cooking oil; biodiesel; quality control; circular economy
MDPI and ACS Style

Tsoutsos, T.; Tournaki, S.; Gkouskos, Z.; Paraíba, O.; Giglio, F.; García, P.Q.; Braga, J.; Adrianos, H.; Filice, M. Quality Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from Used Cooking Oil in Southern Europe. ChemEngineering 2019, 3, 19.

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