Next Article in Journal
Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Quercetin-3-methoxy-4′-glucosyl-7-glucoside Isolated from Indian Medicinal Plant Melothria heterophylla
Next Article in Special Issue
Clinical and Basic Studies on Therapeutic Efficacy of Herbal Medicines against Mycobacterial Infections
Previous Article in Journal
Greater Height Is Associated with a Larger Carotid Lumen Diameter
Previous Article in Special Issue
Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Wild Scolymus maculatus L.
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Effect of the Traditional Medicine Hainosan (Painongsan) on Porphyromonas gingivalis

1
Department of Bacteriology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan
2
Core Laboratory, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan
3
JPS Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 4-42-22 Higashiyamata, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama 224-0023, Japan
4
Department of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1 Tanabe-Dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8603, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2019, 6(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines6020058
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as Potential Antibacterial Agents)
  |  
PDF [1474 KB, uploaded 20 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Background: Hainosan (Painongsan) is a traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine that is used to treat several purulent diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis. This formulation contains three crude drug components: The dried immature fruit of Citrus aurantium (Aurantii Fructus Immaturus), the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora (Paeoniae Radix), and the dried root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Platycodi Radix). Here we evaluated the in vitro antibacterial effects of hainosan extract (HNS) and extracts of its three components against Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the pathogenic bacteria that causes periodontitis. Methods: The antibacterial activities of HNS and its components were examined by counting the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) and through transmission electron microscopy. Results: We found that HNS had direct antibacterial activity against three P. gingivalis isolates (JCM12257, JCM8525, and JCM19600), with HNS-treated cells being significantly smaller than those of untreated bacteria. Extracts of Platycodi Radix and Paeoniae Radix significantly suppressed the growth of P. gingivalis in a dose-dependent manner, with Platycodi Radix extract having the greatest antibacterial effect. In addition, P. gingivalis that were treated with Platycodi Radix extract were significantly larger than those treated with Aurantii Fructus Immaturus or Paeoniae Radix extracts. Further analysis showed that platycodin D, which is one of the ingredients of Platycodi Radix, reduced bacterial growth. Conclusions: Platycodi Radix is the active component in Hainosan and may represent a useful agent for the treatment of P. gingivalis-induced gingivitis and periodontitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hainosan; Platycodi Radix; platycodin D; Porphyromonas gingivalis; gingivitis; periodontitis Hainosan; Platycodi Radix; platycodin D; Porphyromonas gingivalis; gingivitis; periodontitis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Minami, M.; Takase, H.; Taira, M.; Makino, T. In Vitro Effect of the Traditional Medicine Hainosan (Painongsan) on Porphyromonas gingivalis. Medicines 2019, 6, 58.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Medicines EISSN 2305-6320 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top