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Article

Nutritional Evaluation and Risk Assessment of the Exposure to Essential and Toxic Elements in Dogs and Cats through the Consumption of Pelleted Dry Food: How Important Is the Quality of the Feed?

1
Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Paseo Blas Cabrera Felipe s/n, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
2
Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Paseo Blas Cabrera Felipe s/n, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martí Nadal
Toxics 2021, 9(6), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9060133
Received: 23 April 2021 / Revised: 2 June 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 5 June 2021
Dry feed for pets lacks specific legislation regarding maximum residue limits for inorganic elements. The aim of the present study was to determine the content of 43 inorganic elements in dog and cat feed, studying whether there were differences according to the supposed quality of the food and performing the risk assessment for health. Thirty-one and thirty packages of pelleted dry food for cats and dogs, respectively, were analyzed. After acidic microwave-assisted digestion, elements were detected and quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In general, we did not observe important differences in the content of elements according to the supposed quality of the brand. Among trace elements, selenium and manganese are above the dietary reference value. Arsenic and mercury showed the highest acute hazard indexes, which make them risk factors for the health of dogs and cats. Aluminum, uranium, antimony and vanadium contents were above the toxic reference value and showed the highest acute hazard indexes. It is necessary to improve the legislation regarding the food safety of pets, for their health and to protect the rights of consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk assessment; toxic elements; heavy metals; food safety; animal feed risk assessment; toxic elements; heavy metals; food safety; animal feed
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MDPI and ACS Style

Macías-Montes, A.; Zumbado, M.; Luzardo, O.P.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Á.; Acosta-Dacal, A.; Rial-Berriel, C.; Boada, L.D.; Henríquez-Hernández, L.A. Nutritional Evaluation and Risk Assessment of the Exposure to Essential and Toxic Elements in Dogs and Cats through the Consumption of Pelleted Dry Food: How Important Is the Quality of the Feed? Toxics 2021, 9, 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9060133

AMA Style

Macías-Montes A, Zumbado M, Luzardo OP, Rodríguez-Hernández Á, Acosta-Dacal A, Rial-Berriel C, Boada LD, Henríquez-Hernández LA. Nutritional Evaluation and Risk Assessment of the Exposure to Essential and Toxic Elements in Dogs and Cats through the Consumption of Pelleted Dry Food: How Important Is the Quality of the Feed? Toxics. 2021; 9(6):133. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9060133

Chicago/Turabian Style

Macías-Montes, Ana, Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P. Luzardo, Ángel Rodríguez-Hernández, Andrea Acosta-Dacal, Cristian Rial-Berriel, Luis D. Boada, and Luis A. Henríquez-Hernández. 2021. "Nutritional Evaluation and Risk Assessment of the Exposure to Essential and Toxic Elements in Dogs and Cats through the Consumption of Pelleted Dry Food: How Important Is the Quality of the Feed?" Toxics 9, no. 6: 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9060133

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