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Article

Validation of a Method Scope Extension for the Analysis of POPs in Soil and Verification in Organic and Conventional Farms of the Canary Islands

1
Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Paseo Blas Cabrera s/n, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
2
Department of Environmental Analysis, Technological Institute of the Canary Islands, C/ Los Cactus no 68, Polígono Industrial de Arinaga, Agüimes, 35118 Las Palmas, Spain
3
Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
IPNA-CSIC, Av. Astrofisico Francisco Sánchez, 3, 38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors should be considered as first authors since they have contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Magnus Engwall
Toxics 2021, 9(5), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9050101
Received: 7 April 2021 / Revised: 22 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 2 May 2021
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are among the most relevant and dangerous contaminants in soil, from where they can be transferred to crops. Additionally, livestock animals may inadvertently consume relatively high amounts of soil attached to the roots of the vegetables while grazing, leading to indirect exposure to humans. Therefore, periodic monitoring of soils is crucial; thus, simple, robust, and powerful methods are needed. In this study, we have tested and validated an easy QuEChERS-based method for the extraction of 49 POPs (8 PBDEs, 12 OCPs, 11 PAHs, and 18 PCBs) in soils and their analysis by GC-MS/MS. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy, and a matrix effect study was performed. The limits of detection (LOD) were established between 0.048 and 3.125 ng g−1 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.5 and 20 ng g−1, except for naphthalene (50 ng g−1). Then, to verify the applicability of the validated method, we applied it to a series of 81 soil samples from farms dedicated to mixed vegetable cultivation and vineyards in the Canary Islands, both from two modes of production (organic vs. conventional) where residues of OCPs, PCBs, and PAHs were found. View Full-Text
Keywords: QuEChERS; organochlorine pesticides; PCBs; PAHs; PBDEs; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry QuEChERS; organochlorine pesticides; PCBs; PAHs; PBDEs; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Acosta-Dacal, A.; Rial-Berriel, C.; Díaz-Díaz, R.; Bernal-Suárez, M.d.M.; Zumbado, M.; Henríquez-Hernández, L.A.; Alonso-González, P.; Parga-Dans, E.; Luzardo, O.P. Validation of a Method Scope Extension for the Analysis of POPs in Soil and Verification in Organic and Conventional Farms of the Canary Islands. Toxics 2021, 9, 101. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9050101

AMA Style

Acosta-Dacal A, Rial-Berriel C, Díaz-Díaz R, Bernal-Suárez MdM, Zumbado M, Henríquez-Hernández LA, Alonso-González P, Parga-Dans E, Luzardo OP. Validation of a Method Scope Extension for the Analysis of POPs in Soil and Verification in Organic and Conventional Farms of the Canary Islands. Toxics. 2021; 9(5):101. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9050101

Chicago/Turabian Style

Acosta-Dacal, Andrea, Cristian Rial-Berriel, Ricardo Díaz-Díaz, María d.M. Bernal-Suárez, Manuel Zumbado, Luis A. Henríquez-Hernández, Pablo Alonso-González, Eva Parga-Dans, and Octavio P. Luzardo. 2021. "Validation of a Method Scope Extension for the Analysis of POPs in Soil and Verification in Organic and Conventional Farms of the Canary Islands" Toxics 9, no. 5: 101. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9050101

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