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Article

Potentially Toxic Element Levels in Atmospheric Particulates and Health Risk Estimation around Industrial Areas of Maros, Indonesia

1
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
2
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
3
Marine Science Department, Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
4
Faculty of Engineering, Gaza University, Gaza, Palestine
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vânia Martins, Hélder Relvas and Ana Isabel Miranda
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9120328
Received: 26 October 2021 / Revised: 23 November 2021 / Accepted: 25 November 2021 / Published: 2 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling & Impacts Assessments of Air Quality)
Air quality deterioration is a major environmental problem in Indonesia. This study evaluated the levels and health risks of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Maros Regency, Indonesia. Total suspended particulate matter was collected from industrial areas for PTE (Al, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, As and Zn) analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Samples were collected from six critical areas in the Bantimurung region as that is where marble, cement and limestone industries are located. A calculation of the non-carcinogenic and cancer risks was performed to determine the potential health exposures in adults and children. A Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations and a sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify the risk probability and the most sensitive variable contributing to cancer risk from PTE exposure in humans. The results showed that the concentration of PTEs decreased in the order of Zn > Al > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > As in the wet season, and Zn > Al > Pb > As > Cr > Cu > Ni in the dry season. The hazard index (HI) value for children was 2.12, indicating a high non-carcinogenic risk for children. The total cancer risk (TCR) values in adults and children were 3.11 × 10−5 and 1.32 × 10−4, respectively, implying that both are at risk for developing cancer. The variables with the most contribution to cancer risk from As, Cr and Pb exposure in adults and children were As concentration (33.9% and 41.0%); exposure duration (ED) (34.3%) and SA (40.7%); and SA (98.7 % and 45.4%), respectively. These findings could be used as the scientific basis for public health intervention and to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of particulate bound PTEs View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; industrial waste; risk assessment; Maros air pollution; industrial waste; risk assessment; Maros
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rauf, A.U.; Mallongi, A.; Lee, K.; Daud, A.; Hatta, M.; Al Madhoun, W.; Astuti, R.D.P. Potentially Toxic Element Levels in Atmospheric Particulates and Health Risk Estimation around Industrial Areas of Maros, Indonesia. Toxics 2021, 9, 328. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9120328

AMA Style

Rauf AU, Mallongi A, Lee K, Daud A, Hatta M, Al Madhoun W, Astuti RDP. Potentially Toxic Element Levels in Atmospheric Particulates and Health Risk Estimation around Industrial Areas of Maros, Indonesia. Toxics. 2021; 9(12):328. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9120328

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rauf, Annisa U., Anwar Mallongi, Kiyoung Lee, Anwar Daud, Muhammad Hatta, Wesam Al Madhoun, and Ratna D.P. Astuti. 2021. "Potentially Toxic Element Levels in Atmospheric Particulates and Health Risk Estimation around Industrial Areas of Maros, Indonesia" Toxics 9, no. 12: 328. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9120328

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