Next Article in Journal
In Vitro Fish Models for the Analysis of Ecotoxins and Temperature Increase in the Context of Global Warming
Next Article in Special Issue
Air Quality in the Harbin-Changchun Metropolitan Area in Northeast China: Unique Episodes and New Trends
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Co-Exposure of Nanoparticles and Metals on Different Organisms: A Review

Emissions Control Scenarios for Transport in Greater Cairo

Global Centre for Clean Air Research (GCARE), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, UK
Department of Civil, Structural & Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, D02 PN40 Dublin, Ireland
School of Architecture, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
Department of Construction Engineering, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Matthias Karl and Yuan Cheng
Toxics 2021, 9(11), 285;
Received: 11 September 2021 / Revised: 18 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 October 2021 / Published: 1 November 2021
Air pollution is a major cause of premature death in Greater Cairo, but studies on emission control are limited. We used local and international data to predict the impact of transport emission control measures on sector parameters including congestion. The International Vehicle Emission model accordingly estimated quantities of criteria, toxic and global warming emissions produced by on-road vehicles. Emissions were estimated for 2019 base case (2019-BC) and projected for 2030 under the ‘do nothing’ scenario (2030-DNS) and five scenarios: fuel subsidy removal (2030-FSR), road expansions (2030-RE), public transport improvements (2030-PTI), inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs (2030-I/MP), and fuel enhancements (2030-FE). The 2030-FSR would reduce emissions by 11.2% versus 2030-DNS. The 2030-RE resulted in an average increase of 37% in emissions compared with 2030-DNS since it induces more traffic. The 2030-PTI provides alternatives to car travel; hence, cars result in an average drop of 32.8% for all emission types compared with 2030-DNS. The 2030-I/MP exhibited reductions in PM10 and toxic pollutants, of 35–54.8% compared with 2030-DNS. The 2030-FE reduced SOx, benzene and N2O emissions by 91.8%, 81% and 39.1%, respectively, compared with 2030-DNS. The 2030-I/MP is most effective in reducing health damaging pollutants while 2030-PTI positively impacts commuters’ lifestyle. View Full-Text
Keywords: greater Cairo; transport emissions; emission control scenarios; IVE model greater Cairo; transport emissions; emission control scenarios; IVE model
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Alaa Abbass, R.; Kumar, P.; El-Gendy, A. Emissions Control Scenarios for Transport in Greater Cairo. Toxics 2021, 9, 285.

AMA Style

Alaa Abbass R, Kumar P, El-Gendy A. Emissions Control Scenarios for Transport in Greater Cairo. Toxics. 2021; 9(11):285.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alaa Abbass, Rana, Prashant Kumar, and Ahmed El-Gendy. 2021. "Emissions Control Scenarios for Transport in Greater Cairo" Toxics 9, no. 11: 285.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop