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Review

Effects of Co-Exposure of Nanoparticles and Metals on Different Organisms: A Review

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Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt
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Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Future University, Cairo 41639, Egypt
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Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Annalisa Pinsino and Chiara Gambardella
Toxics 2021, 9(11), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110284
Received: 20 September 2021 / Revised: 18 October 2021 / Accepted: 22 October 2021 / Published: 1 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Knowledge of Nanomaterial Ecotoxicology)
Wide nanotechnology applications and the commercialization of consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have increased the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. Titanium dioxide, aluminum oxide, zinc oxide, and silica NPs are widely implicated NPs in industrial, medicinal, and food products. Different types of pollutants usually co-exist in the environment. Heavy metals (HMs) are widely distributed pollutants that could potentially co-occur with NPs in the environment. Similar to what occurs with NPs, HMs accumulation in the environment results from anthropogenic activities, in addition to some natural sources. These pollutants remain in the environment for long periods and have an impact on several organisms through different routes of exposure in soil, water, and air. The impact on complex systems results from the interactions between NPs and HMs and the organisms. This review describes the outcomes of simultaneous exposure to the most commonly found ENMs and HMs, particularly on soil and aquatic organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: engineered nanomaterials; heavy metals; bioaccumulation; environment; co-exposure; mixture toxicity engineered nanomaterials; heavy metals; bioaccumulation; environment; co-exposure; mixture toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abd-Elhakim, Y.M.; Hashem, M.M.; Abo-EL-Sooud, K.; Hassan, B.A.; Elbohi, K.M.; Al-Sagheer, A.A. Effects of Co-Exposure of Nanoparticles and Metals on Different Organisms: A Review. Toxics 2021, 9, 284. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110284

AMA Style

Abd-Elhakim YM, Hashem MM, Abo-EL-Sooud K, Hassan BA, Elbohi KM, Al-Sagheer AA. Effects of Co-Exposure of Nanoparticles and Metals on Different Organisms: A Review. Toxics. 2021; 9(11):284. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110284

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M., Mohamed M. Hashem, Khaled Abo-EL-Sooud, Bayan A. Hassan, Khlood M. Elbohi, and Adham A. Al-Sagheer. 2021. "Effects of Co-Exposure of Nanoparticles and Metals on Different Organisms: A Review" Toxics 9, no. 11: 284. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110284

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