Rising temperatures can affect fish survival, especially from shallower waters, as temperatures increase faster and more intensively in these areas; thus, species-specific temperature tolerance can be exceeded. Additionally, the amounts of anthropogenic pollutants are higher in coastal waters. Although increasing metabolic activity at higher temperatures could lead to stronger effects of toxins, there are hardly any studies on this topic. Subsequently, the aim was to investigate the response of fish cells upon exposure to industrial solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) in relation to a temperature increase (20 °C and 25 °C). Concerning the 3Rs (the replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments), in vitro tests were used for two threatened, vulnerable fish species: maraena whitefish (Coregonus maraena
) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus
). Both cell lines exhibited higher proliferation at 25 °C. However, ecotoxicological results indicated significant differences regarding the cell line, toxin, temperature and exposure time. The evolutionarily older fish lineage, Atlantic sturgeon, demonstrated lower mortality rates in the presence of isopropanol and recovered better during long-term ethanol exposure than the maraena whitefish. Atlantic sturgeon cells have higher adaptation potential for these alcohols. In summary, fish species respond very specifically to toxins and changes in temperature, and new ecotoxicological questions arise with increasing water temperatures.
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