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In Vitro Fish Models for the Analysis of Ecotoxins and Temperature Increase in the Context of Global Warming

Research Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Institute of Muscle Biology and Growth, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany
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Academic Editor: Markus Brinkmann
Toxics 2021, 9(11), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110286
Received: 30 August 2021 / Revised: 29 September 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 1 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
Rising temperatures can affect fish survival, especially from shallower waters, as temperatures increase faster and more intensively in these areas; thus, species-specific temperature tolerance can be exceeded. Additionally, the amounts of anthropogenic pollutants are higher in coastal waters. Although increasing metabolic activity at higher temperatures could lead to stronger effects of toxins, there are hardly any studies on this topic. Subsequently, the aim was to investigate the response of fish cells upon exposure to industrial solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) in relation to a temperature increase (20 °C and 25 °C). Concerning the 3Rs (the replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments), in vitro tests were used for two threatened, vulnerable fish species: maraena whitefish (Coregonus maraena) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus). Both cell lines exhibited higher proliferation at 25 °C. However, ecotoxicological results indicated significant differences regarding the cell line, toxin, temperature and exposure time. The evolutionarily older fish lineage, Atlantic sturgeon, demonstrated lower mortality rates in the presence of isopropanol and recovered better during long-term ethanol exposure than the maraena whitefish. Atlantic sturgeon cells have higher adaptation potential for these alcohols. In summary, fish species respond very specifically to toxins and changes in temperature, and new ecotoxicological questions arise with increasing water temperatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish cells; 3R; sturgeon; salmonid; ecotoxicology; chemical solvents; climate change; ocean warming fish cells; 3R; sturgeon; salmonid; ecotoxicology; chemical solvents; climate change; ocean warming
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grunow, B.; Franz, G.P.; Tönißen, K. In Vitro Fish Models for the Analysis of Ecotoxins and Temperature Increase in the Context of Global Warming. Toxics 2021, 9, 286. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110286

AMA Style

Grunow B, Franz GP, Tönißen K. In Vitro Fish Models for the Analysis of Ecotoxins and Temperature Increase in the Context of Global Warming. Toxics. 2021; 9(11):286. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110286

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grunow, Bianka, George P. Franz, and Katrin Tönißen. 2021. "In Vitro Fish Models for the Analysis of Ecotoxins and Temperature Increase in the Context of Global Warming" Toxics 9, no. 11: 286. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9110286

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