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Transfer of Pollutants from Macrocystis pyrifera to Tetrapygus niger in a Highly Impacted Coastal Zone of Chile

by 1,2,3,4,5, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4 and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Departamento de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8370251, Chile
2
Centro de Investigación Marina Quintay (CIMARQ), Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Valparaíso, Quintay 2531015, Chile
3
Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago 8331150, Chile
4
Instituto Milenio en Socio-Ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago 8370251, Chile
5
Programa de Doctorado en Medicina de la Conservación, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8370251, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Vannini
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100244
Received: 3 September 2021 / Revised: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 27 September 2021 / Published: 1 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Chemistry)
PAHs and heavy metals are characteristic pollutants in urbanized coastal areas, especially those with industrial activity. Given this context and the ability of Macrocystis pyrifera to drift when detached and provide trophic subsidy in coastal systems, we analyzed the potential transfer of pollutants to the herbivore Tetrapygus niger, through diet, in an industrialized coastal zone in Central Chile (Caleta Horcón) and characterized the impacted zone using diverse polluted ecotoxicological indices. For this purpose, a culture experiment was conducted where M. pyrifera individuals from Algarrobo (control site) were cultivated in Caleta Horcón and then used as food for T. niger. The contents of both PAHs and heavy metal contents were subsequently determined in algal tissue and sea urchin gonads as well as in the seawater. The results show that algae cultivated in Caleta Horcón had higher concentrations of naphthalene (NAF) compared to those from a low industrial impact zone (Algarrobo) (2.5 and 1.8 mg kg−1, respectively). The concentrations of Cu, As, and Cd were higher in Caleta Horcón than in Algarrobo in both M. pyrifera and T. niger. For all metals, including Pb, higher concentrations were present in T. niger than in M. pyrifera (between 5 and 798 times higher). Additionally, as indicated by the toxicological indices MPI (0.00804) and PLI (10.89), Caleta Horcón is highly contaminated with metals compared to Algarrobo (0.0006 and 0.015, respectively). Finally, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and trophic transfer factor (TTF) values were greater than one in most cases, with values in Caleta Horcón exceeding those in Algarrobo by one or two orders of magnitude. This study provides evidence that Caleta Horcón is a highly impacted zone (HIZ) compared to Algarrobo, in addition to evidence that the biomagnification of certain pollutants, including the possible responses to contaminants, are apparently not exclusively transferred to T. niger through diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine contamination; ecosystem health; kelps; sea urchin; heavy metals; PAHs marine contamination; ecosystem health; kelps; sea urchin; heavy metals; PAHs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Latorre-Padilla, N.; Meynard, A.; Rivas, J.; Contreras-Porcia, L. Transfer of Pollutants from Macrocystis pyrifera to Tetrapygus niger in a Highly Impacted Coastal Zone of Chile. Toxics 2021, 9, 244. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100244

AMA Style

Latorre-Padilla N, Meynard A, Rivas J, Contreras-Porcia L. Transfer of Pollutants from Macrocystis pyrifera to Tetrapygus niger in a Highly Impacted Coastal Zone of Chile. Toxics. 2021; 9(10):244. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100244

Chicago/Turabian Style

Latorre-Padilla, Nicolás, Andrés Meynard, Jorge Rivas, and Loretto Contreras-Porcia. 2021. "Transfer of Pollutants from Macrocystis pyrifera to Tetrapygus niger in a Highly Impacted Coastal Zone of Chile" Toxics 9, no. 10: 244. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100244

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