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Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the Adrenal Gland: From Toxicity to Endocrine Disruption

A.P. Avtsyn Research Institute of Human Morphology, 3 Tsyurupy Street, 117418 Moscow, Russia
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Academic Editor: Eduardo Rocha
Toxics 2021, 9(10), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100243
Received: 8 September 2021 / Revised: 27 September 2021 / Accepted: 27 September 2021 / Published: 1 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Effects of Endocrine Disrupters)
Endocrine disruptors are exogenous compounds that pollute the environment and have effects similar to hormones when inside the body. One of the most widespread endocrine disruptors in the wild is the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Toxic doses of DDT are known to cause cell atrophy and degeneration in the adrenal zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Daily exposure in a developing organism to supposedly non-toxic doses of DDT have been found to impair the morphogenesis of both the cortex and the medulla of the adrenal glands, as well as disturbing the secretion of hormones in cortical and chromaffin cells. Comparison of high and very low levels of DDT exposure revealed drastic differences in the morphological and functional changes in the adrenal cortex. Moreover, the three adrenocortical zones have different levels of sensitivity to the disruptive actions of DDT. The zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis demonstrate sensitivity to both high and very low levels of DDT in prenatal and postnatal periods. In contrast, the zona fasciculata is less damaged by low (supposedly non-toxic) exposure to DDT and its metabolites but is affected by toxic levels of exposure; thus, DDT exerts both toxic and disruptive effects on the adrenal glands, and sensitivity to these two types of action varies in adrenocortical zones. Disruptive low-dose exposure leads to more severe affection of the adrenal function. View Full-Text
Keywords: endocrine disruptor; DDT; adrenal gland; mineralocorticoids; glucocorticoids; sex hormones; epinephrine; morphogenesis; transcriptional regulation endocrine disruptor; DDT; adrenal gland; mineralocorticoids; glucocorticoids; sex hormones; epinephrine; morphogenesis; transcriptional regulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Timokhina, E.P.; Yaglov, V.V.; Nazimova, S.V. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the Adrenal Gland: From Toxicity to Endocrine Disruption. Toxics 2021, 9, 243. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100243

AMA Style

Timokhina EP, Yaglov VV, Nazimova SV. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the Adrenal Gland: From Toxicity to Endocrine Disruption. Toxics. 2021; 9(10):243. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100243

Chicago/Turabian Style

Timokhina, Ekaterina P., Valentin V. Yaglov, and Svetlana V. Nazimova 2021. "Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the Adrenal Gland: From Toxicity to Endocrine Disruption" Toxics 9, no. 10: 243. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9100243

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