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Article

Temporal Persistence of Bromadiolone in Decomposing Bodies of Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

1
Service of Toxicology and Forensic Veterinary, Faculty of Veterinary, Campus de Espinardo, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
2
Santa-Faz Wildlife Recovery Center, Consellería de Agricultura, Desarrollo Rural, Emergencia Climática y Transición Ecológica, Alicante, 03559 Generalitat Valenciana, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040098
Received: 16 September 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 7 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wildlife Toxicology: An Update on Contaminant Exposure and Effects)
Bromadiolone is a second generation anticoagulant rodenticide (SGAR) used to control pest rodents worldwide. SGARs are frequently involved in secondary poisoning in rodent predators due to their persistence and toxicity. This study aims to evaluate the persistence of bromadiolone in liver at different stages of carcass decomposition in experimentally-dosed common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) to understand the possibility of detecting bromadiolone in cases of wildlife poisoning and the potential risk of tertiary poisoning. Twelve individuals were divided into the bromadiolone-dose group (dosed with 55 mg/kg b.w) and the control group. Hepatic bromadiolone concentrations found in each stage of decomposition were: 3000, 2891, 4804, 4245, 8848, and 756 ng/g dry weight at 1–2 h (fresh carcass), 24 h (moderate decomposition), 72 h, 96 h (advanced decomposition), seven days (very advanced decomposition), and 15 days (initial skeletal reduction) after death, respectively. Liver bromadiolone concentrations in carcasses remained relatively stable over the first four days and raised on day 7 of decomposition under the specific conditions of this experiment, presenting a risk of causing tertiary poisoning. However, at the initial skeletal reduction stage, liver bromadiolone concentration declined, which should be considered to interpret toxicological analyses and for proper diagnosis. This experimental study provides for the first time some light to better understand the degradation of SGARs in carcasses in the wild. View Full-Text
Keywords: anticoagulant rodenticides; carcass decomposition; bromadiolone degradation; wildlife poisoning; biomonitoring anticoagulant rodenticides; carcass decomposition; bromadiolone degradation; wildlife poisoning; biomonitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Valverde, I.; Espín, S.; Gómez-Ramírez, P.; Navas, I.; Sánchez-Virosta, P.; Torres-Chaparro, M.Y.; Jiménez, P.; María-Mojica, P.; García-Fernández, A.J. Temporal Persistence of Bromadiolone in Decomposing Bodies of Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Toxics 2020, 8, 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040098

AMA Style

Valverde I, Espín S, Gómez-Ramírez P, Navas I, Sánchez-Virosta P, Torres-Chaparro MY, Jiménez P, María-Mojica P, García-Fernández AJ. Temporal Persistence of Bromadiolone in Decomposing Bodies of Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Toxics. 2020; 8(4):98. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040098

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valverde, Irene, Silvia Espín, Pilar Gómez-Ramírez, Isabel Navas, Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, María Y. Torres-Chaparro, Pedro Jiménez, Pedro María-Mojica, and Antonio J. García-Fernández 2020. "Temporal Persistence of Bromadiolone in Decomposing Bodies of Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)" Toxics 8, no. 4: 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040098

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