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Article

Evaluation of Soil and Ambient Air Pollution Around Un-reclaimed Mining Bodies in Nižná Slaná (Slovakia) Post-Mining Area

1
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, University of Prešov, 17. Novembra 1, 08001 Prešov, Slovakia
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia
3
Department of Sustainable Development, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia
4
Department of Geography and Applied Geoinformatics, University of Prešov, 17. Novembra 1, 08116 Prešov, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040096
Received: 23 September 2020 / Revised: 21 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
Thirty soil samples were taken, and the same number of moss (Dicranum scoparium) and lichen (Pseudevernia furfuracea) bags were exposed to detect environmental pollution in the former mining area Nižná Slaná. Soil and ambient air are influenced by hazardous substances, which leak from old mining bodies due to insufficient or completely missing reclamation. The total content of the risk elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Pb, Zn) was determined in soil, moss, and lichen samples and in the bodies of Leccinum pseudoscabrum. Biological (soil enzymes—urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), ß-glucosidase) and chemical properties (pH) were determined in soil samples. Contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd), pollution load index (PLI), and enrichment factor (EF) were used for soil and relative accumulation factor (RAF) for air quality evaluation. Contamination factor values show serious pollution by Cd, Fe, Hg, and Mn. Pollution load index confirmed extremely high pollution almost at all evaluated areas. Soil enzymes reacted to soil pollution mostly by decreasing their activity. Mosses and lichens show differences in the accumulation abilities of individual elements. Regular consumption of L. pseudoscabrum would provide the dose of Cd and Hg below the limit of provisional weekly intake. Based on the bioaccumulation index (BAF) values, L. pseudoscabrum can be characterized as an Hg accumulator. View Full-Text
Keywords: former mining area; L. pseudoscabrum; moss and lichen bag technique; soil contamination; contamination factor; degree of contamination; relative accumulation factor former mining area; L. pseudoscabrum; moss and lichen bag technique; soil contamination; contamination factor; degree of contamination; relative accumulation factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Demková, L.; Árvay, J.; Bobuľská, L.; Hauptvogl, M.; Michalko, M.; Michalková, J.; Jančo, I. Evaluation of Soil and Ambient Air Pollution Around Un-reclaimed Mining Bodies in Nižná Slaná (Slovakia) Post-Mining Area. Toxics 2020, 8, 96. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040096

AMA Style

Demková L, Árvay J, Bobuľská L, Hauptvogl M, Michalko M, Michalková J, Jančo I. Evaluation of Soil and Ambient Air Pollution Around Un-reclaimed Mining Bodies in Nižná Slaná (Slovakia) Post-Mining Area. Toxics. 2020; 8(4):96. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040096

Chicago/Turabian Style

Demková, Lenka, Július Árvay, Lenka Bobuľská, Martin Hauptvogl, Miloslav Michalko, Jana Michalková, and Ivona Jančo. 2020. "Evaluation of Soil and Ambient Air Pollution Around Un-reclaimed Mining Bodies in Nižná Slaná (Slovakia) Post-Mining Area" Toxics 8, no. 4: 96. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040096

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