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Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Apis and Non-Apis Bees

1
CTIS, 69140 Rillieux La Pape, France
2
SPO, INRAE, Montpellier SupAgro, University of Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040104
Received: 25 August 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 17 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Risk Assessment and Management)
Pyriproxyfen is a juvenile hormone mimic used extensively worldwide to fight pests in agriculture and horticulture. It also has numerous applications as larvicide in vector control. The molecule disrupts metamorphosis and adult emergence in the target insects. The same types of adverse effects are expected on non-target insects. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the existing information on the toxicity of pyriproxyfen on the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and non-Apis bees (bumble bees, solitary bees, and stingless bees). The goal was also to identify the gaps necessary to fill. Thus, whereas the acute and sublethal toxicity of pyriproxyfen against A. mellifera is well-documented, the information is almost lacking for the non-Apis bees. The direct and indirect routes of exposure of the non-Apis bees to pyriproxyfen also need to be identified and quantified. More generally, the impacts of pyriproxyfen on the reproductive success of the different bee species have to be evaluated as well as the potential adverse effects of its metabolites. View Full-Text
Keywords: pyriproxyfen; honey bee; bumble bee; solitary bee; stingless bee pyriproxyfen; honey bee; bumble bee; solitary bee; stingless bee
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MDPI and ACS Style

Devillers, J.; Devillers, H. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Apis and Non-Apis Bees. Toxics 2020, 8, 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040104

AMA Style

Devillers J, Devillers H. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Apis and Non-Apis Bees. Toxics. 2020; 8(4):104. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040104

Chicago/Turabian Style

Devillers, James, and Hugo Devillers. 2020. "Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Apis and Non-Apis Bees" Toxics 8, no. 4: 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040104

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