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Article

Ambient Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides during Pregnancy and Risk of Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study in California

1
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
2
Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric, and Environmental Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
3
Department of Community Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
4
Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
5
Perinatal Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Research Unit, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA
6
California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA
7
Department of Paediatrics, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
8
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 C Aarhus, Denmark
9
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
10
Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
11
Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
12
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8030052
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 26 July 2020 / Accepted: 28 July 2020 / Published: 31 July 2020
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common neuro-motor disability in young children. Disruptions of maternal hormone function during pregnancy have been linked to CP risk. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to pesticide compounds with endocrine-disrupting action affect CP risk. We conducted a case-control study of 3905 CP cases and 39,377 controls born between 1998 and 2010 in California to mothers who lived in proximity (within 2 km) to any agricultural pesticide application recorded in the California Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) system. We focused on 23 pesticides considered endocrine disruptors that are frequently used, and we found that exposure to any of the 23 pesticides in the first trimester was associated with elevated CP risks in female offspring (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05–1.35) but not males (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.89–1.09) compared to the unexposed offspring. Positive associations were estimated for 15 pesticides suspected to affect the estrogen and 7 pesticides suspected to affect the thyroid hormone system. Our study suggests that first trimester exposure to pesticides that are suspected endocrine disruptors are associated with CP risk in female offspring. Pesticide exposures in early pregnancy may have sex-specific influences on the neuro-motor development of the fetus by interfering with endocrine systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticide; endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC); cerebral palsy; movement disorders; neurodevelopment pesticide; endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC); cerebral palsy; movement disorders; neurodevelopment
MDPI and ACS Style

Liew, Z.; von Ehrenstein, O.S.; Ling, C.; Yuan, Y.; Meng, Q.; Cui, X.; Park, A.S.; Uldall, P.; Olsen, J.; Cockburn, M.; Ritz, B. Ambient Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides during Pregnancy and Risk of Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study in California. Toxics 2020, 8, 52. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8030052

AMA Style

Liew Z, von Ehrenstein OS, Ling C, Yuan Y, Meng Q, Cui X, Park AS, Uldall P, Olsen J, Cockburn M, Ritz B. Ambient Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides during Pregnancy and Risk of Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study in California. Toxics. 2020; 8(3):52. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8030052

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liew, Zeyan, Ondine S. von Ehrenstein, Chenxiao Ling, Yuying Yuan, Qi Meng, Xin Cui, Andrew S. Park, Peter Uldall, Jørn Olsen, Myles Cockburn, and Beate Ritz. 2020. "Ambient Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides during Pregnancy and Risk of Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study in California" Toxics 8, no. 3: 52. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8030052

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