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Toxics 2018, 6(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6040068

Impact of Maternal Air Pollution Exposure on Children’s Lung Health: An Indian Perspective

1
Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati 781125, Assam, India
2
Department of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati 781125, Assam, India
3
Respiratory Translational Research Group, Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston 7248, Tasmania, Australia
4
Medical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
5
Woolcock Emphysema Centre, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2037, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prenatal Exposure to Toxics and Risks in Infants)
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PDF [3122 KB, uploaded 16 November 2018]
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Abstract

Air pollution has become an emerging invisible killer in recent years and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. More than 90% of the world’s children breathe toxic air every day. India is among the top ten most highly polluted countries with an average PM10 level of 134 μg/m3 per year. It is reported that 99% of India’s population encounters air pollution levels that exceed the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline, advising a PM2.5 permissible level of 10 μg/m3. Maternal exposure to air pollution has serious health outcomes in offspring because it can affect embryonic phases of development during the gestation period. A fetus is more prone to effects from air pollution during embryonic developmental phases due to resulting oxidative stress as antioxidant mechanisms are lacking at that stage. Any injury during this vulnerable period (embryonic phase) will have a long-term impact on offspring health, both early and later in life. Epidemiological studies have revealed that maternal exposure to air pollution increases the risk of development of airway disease in the offspring due to impaired lung development in utero. In this review, we discuss cellular mechanisms involved in maternal exposure to air pollution and how it can impact airway disease development in offspring. A better understanding of these mechanisms in the context of maternal exposure to air pollution can offer a new avenue to prevent the development of airway disease in offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; air pollution; maternal-exposure; airway disease particulate matter; air pollution; maternal-exposure; airway disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Saha, P.; Johny, E.; Dangi, A.; Shinde, S.; Brake, S.; Eapen, M.S.; Sohal, S.S.; Naidu, V.; Sharma, P. Impact of Maternal Air Pollution Exposure on Children’s Lung Health: An Indian Perspective. Toxics 2018, 6, 68.

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