Among the numerous health benefits of fish consumption, perhaps the most recognized is the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease is prevalent in Hungary, which has the lowest fish consumption in Europe. Increasing fish consumption is the aim of most European countries and given the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in Hungary, it is of particular importance. A significant reduction of the VAT for fish in 1 January 2018 aimed to increase fish consumption in Hungary. However, despite reduced VAT, the price of fish in Hungary rose from 2017 to 2018. The aim of our research is to explore perceived risks that serve to exacerbate Hungarian consumers’ low fish consumption, and to measure their effects to identify potential strategies to most effectively increase fish consumption. We applied partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to analyze responses provided by 1042 survey participants (collected with face-to-face interviews, using quota sampling in 2014) to explore variables of fish consumption associated with perceived risk including psychological, physical, social, and functional risks. Our model is the first one that applies detailed perceived risk categories to measure those effects on low fish consumption. The results indicate that psychological risk associated with negative past experiences have both a direct, and through functional risk, an indirect significant negative effect on fish consumption. Conversely, neither social nor physical risk impede Hungarian fish consumption. We conclude that the seafood industry could benefit from targeted interventions that seek to reduce functional risk-perception of the person responsible for preparing fish in the household.
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