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Open AccessArticle

Extended Harvest Date Alter Flavonoid Composition and Chromatic Characteristics of Plavac Mali (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Berries

1
Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Put Duilova 11, 21000 Split, Croatia
2
Department of Viticulture and Enology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Centre of Excellence for Biodiversity and Molecular Plant Breeding, Svetošimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091155
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 13 August 2020 / Accepted: 15 August 2020 / Published: 21 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
This study delivers a comprehensive flavonoid fingerprint profile, physiochemical and external color characterization of Plavac Mali grapes through four harvest dates at two distinct vineyards (Split and Zadar) in the Eastern Adriatic region. The experimental harvest lasted 56 days, at total soluble solids content from 18.4 to 22.4°Brix in Split and 16.8 to 20.4°Brix in Zadar. Patterns of 27 skin and seed flavonoid compounds at each location indicate unique flavonoid composition of berries at each harvest date. Extended harvest increased six compounds in skin with maximum values of main anthocyanin malvidin-3-O-glucoside in H3 (4406.6 and 6389.5 mg kg−1, Split and Zadar, respectively) followed by a decrease in October. Peak values of seed and skin catechins and galloylated flavan-3-ol subunits are seen in H1 and H2 at Split, while constantly high values are reported in the case of Zadar, with an incoherent pattern of those in skin extracts. Minimal values of epigallocatechin were detected with an extended harvest date at both locations. Berries of extended harvest dates underwent colorimetric improvements, trough decrease in L*, a*, b* and C characteristics and increase in skin color index for red grapes CIRG. The extended harvest date promotes flavonoid composition, and improves the quality of Plavac Mali grape berries. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitis vinifera cv. Plavac Mali; flavonoids; anthocyanins; tannin; flavonols; harvest date; CIELab color space skin parameters; green berries Vitis vinifera cv. Plavac Mali; flavonoids; anthocyanins; tannin; flavonols; harvest date; CIELab color space skin parameters; green berries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mucalo, A.; Maletić, E.; Zdunić, G. Extended Harvest Date Alter Flavonoid Composition and Chromatic Characteristics of Plavac Mali (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Berries. Foods 2020, 9, 1155.

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