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Production and Characterization of Anti-Inflammatory Monascus Pigment Derivatives

1
Fermentation Science Program, School of Agriculture, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA
2
Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
3
Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
4
Department of Food and Nutrition, Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
5
Department of Biology, Hood College, Frederick, MD 21701, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Foods 2020, 9(7), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070858
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprocess and Bioseparation of Food Resources)
The prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation using food-derived compounds are desirable from the perspectives of marketing and safety. Monascus pigments, widely used as food additives, can be used as a chronic inflammation treatment. Orange Monascus pigments were produced by submerged fermentation in a 5 L bioreactor, and multiple orange Monascus pigment derivatives with anti-inflammatory activities were synthesized using aminophilic reaction. A total of 41 types of pigment derivatives were produced by incorporating amines and amino acids into the orange pigments. One derivative candidate that inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in Raw 264.7 cells and exhibited low cell cytotoxicity was identified via in vitro assay. The 2-amino-4 picoline derivative inhibited NO production of 48.4%, and exhibited cell viability of 90.6%. Expression of inducible NO synthase, an important enzyme in the NO synthesis pathway, was suppressed by such a derivative in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, this derivative has potential as a functional food colorant with anti-inflammatory effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: amine derivatives; amino acid derivatives; anti-inflammatory effects; submerged fermentation; orange Monascus pigments amine derivatives; amino acid derivatives; anti-inflammatory effects; submerged fermentation; orange Monascus pigments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choe, D.; Song, S.M.; Shin, C.S.; Johnston, T.V.; Ahn, H.J.; Kim, D.; Ku, S. Production and Characterization of Anti-Inflammatory Monascus Pigment Derivatives. Foods 2020, 9, 858.

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