Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of the Toxicity of Satureja intermedia C. A. Mey Essential Oil to Storage and Greenhouse Insect Pests and a Predator Ladybird
Previous Article in Journal
Microwave Treatments of Cereals: Effects on Thermophysical and Parenchymal-Related Properties
Open AccessArticle

Prevalence of Milk Fraud in the Chinese Market and its Relationship with Fraud Vulnerabilities in the Chain

1
Food Quality and Design Group, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Wageningen Food Safety Research, part of Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, P.O. Box 291, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(6), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060709
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 27 May 2020 / Accepted: 27 May 2020 / Published: 1 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processed milk samples suspected of being adulterated on the Chinese market and, subsequently, relate their geographical origin to the earlier determined fraud vulnerability. A total of 52 UHT milk samples purchased from the Chinese market were measured to detect possible anomalies. The milk compositional features were determined by standardized Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and the detection limits for common milk adulterations were investigated. The results showed that twelve of the analysed milk samples (23%) were suspected of having quality or fraud-related issues, while one sample of these was highly suspected of being adulterated (diluted with water). Proportionally, more suspected samples were determined among milks produced in the Central-Northern and Eastern areas of China than in those from the North-Western and North-Eastern areas, while those from the South were in between. Combining the earlier collected results on fraud vulnerability in the Chinese milk chains, it appears that increased fraud prevalence relates to poorer business relationships and lack of adequate managerial controls. Since very few opportunities and motivations differ consistently across high and low-prevalence areas, primarily the improvement of control measures can help to mitigate food fraud in the Chinese milk supply chains. View Full-Text
Keywords: China; Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy; fraud vulnerability; milk adulteration; milk composition; one-class classifications China; Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy; fraud vulnerability; milk adulteration; milk composition; one-class classifications
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Hettinga, K.A.; Erasmus, S.W.; van Ruth, S.M. Prevalence of Milk Fraud in the Chinese Market and its Relationship with Fraud Vulnerabilities in the Chain. Foods 2020, 9, 709.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop