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Article

Lemon Juice, Sesame Paste, and Autoclaving Influence Iron Bioavailability of Hummus: Assessment by an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

1
UMR PAM Food and Microbiological Processes, University of Burgundy Franche Comté/AgroSup Dijon, 1 esplanade Erasme, 21000 Dijon, France
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar 90656, Lebanon
3
Department of Biology and Nutrition, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar 90656, Lebanon
4
NUTOX UMR INSERM 1231 Laboratory of Nutrition, Physiology, and Toxicology, University of Burgundy Franche Comté/AgroSup Dijon, 1 esplanade Erasme, 21000 Dijon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040474
Received: 19 March 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges and Opportunities of Food Digestion)
Hummus, an iron-containing plant-based dish mainly made from chickpea purée, tahini, lemon juice and garlic, could be a valuable source of iron when bioavailable. Since the processing and formulation of food influence iron bioavailability, the present study investigated for the first time, their effects on hummus. Firstly, iron bioaccessibility was assessed on eight samples (prepared according to the screening Hadamard matrix) by in vitro digestion preceding iron dialysis. Then, iron bioavailability of four selected samples was estimated by the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Total and dialyzable iron were determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry and ferritin formation was determined using an ELISA kit. Only autoclaving, among other processes, had a significant effect on iron bioaccessibility (+9.5, p < 0.05). Lemon juice had the highest positive effect (+15.9, p < 0.05). Consequently, the effect of its acidic components were investigated based on a full factorial 23 experimental design; no significant difference was detected. Garlic’s effect was not significant, but tahini’s effect was negative (−8.9, p < 0.05). Despite the latter, hummus had a higher iron bioavailability than only cooked chickpeas (30.4 and 7.23 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively). In conclusion, hummus may be a promising source of iron; further in vivo studies are needed for confirmation. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-heme iron; plant-based food; Mediterranean and middle-eastern cuisine; hummus; food processing and formulation; in vitro digestion; iron dialysis; iron uptake by Caco-2 cells non-heme iron; plant-based food; Mediterranean and middle-eastern cuisine; hummus; food processing and formulation; in vitro digestion; iron dialysis; iron uptake by Caco-2 cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Doumani, N.; Severin, I.; Dahbi, L.; Bou-Maroun, E.; Tueni, M.; Sok, N.; Chagnon, M.-C.; Maalouly, J.; Cayot, P. Lemon Juice, Sesame Paste, and Autoclaving Influence Iron Bioavailability of Hummus: Assessment by an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model. Foods 2020, 9, 474. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040474

AMA Style

Doumani N, Severin I, Dahbi L, Bou-Maroun E, Tueni M, Sok N, Chagnon M-C, Maalouly J, Cayot P. Lemon Juice, Sesame Paste, and Autoclaving Influence Iron Bioavailability of Hummus: Assessment by an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model. Foods. 2020; 9(4):474. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040474

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doumani, Nour, Isabelle Severin, Laurence Dahbi, Elias Bou-Maroun, Maya Tueni, Nicolas Sok, Marie-Christine Chagnon, Jacqueline Maalouly, and Philippe Cayot. 2020. "Lemon Juice, Sesame Paste, and Autoclaving Influence Iron Bioavailability of Hummus: Assessment by an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model" Foods 9, no. 4: 474. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040474

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