The predation and burrowing activity of invasive green crabs have had detrimental effects on important marine resources and habitats. Our objective is to develop bioactive hydrolysates by enzymatic proteolysis of underutilized green crab. Mechanically separated mince was hydrolyzed with Alcalase, Protamex, Flavourzyme, and Papain (1%) for 60 min. Subsequently, the hydrolysates were introduced to a simulated gastrointestinal digestion model. Selected samples were fractionated by ultrafiltration, and their anti-hyperglycemic effects including α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activities and glucagon-like 1 (GLP-1) secretory activity were evaluated. The Protamex treatment showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50
1.38 ± 0.19 mg/mL) compared to other enzyme treatments and the crab mince control, and its α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50
11.02 ± 0.69 mg/mL) was lower than its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Its GLP-1 secretory activity was approximately four times higher than the positive control (10 mM glutamine). The <3 kD fraction contributed significantly to the anti-hyperglycemic activity of Protamex-derived hydrolysates, and this activity was stable after simulated digestion. Our results suggest that green crab hydrolysates obtained by Protamex treatment have the potential for type 2 diabetes management and could be incorporated in food products as a health-promoting ingredient.
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