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Article

Austrian Raw-Milk Hard-Cheese Ripening Involves Successional Dynamics of Non-Inoculated Bacteria and Fungi

1
Unit of Food Microbiology, Institute of Food Safety, Food Technology and Veterinary Public Health, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Austrian Competence Centre for Feed and Food Quality, Safety and Innovation, FFoQSI GmbH, A-3430 Tulln an der Donau, Austria
3
Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
4
Clinical Unit for Herd Health Management in Ruminants, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121851
Received: 2 November 2020 / Revised: 3 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
Cheese ripening involves successional changes of the rind microbial composition that harbors a key role on the quality and safety of the final products. In this study, we analyzed the evolution of the rind microbiota (bacteria and fungi) throughout the ripening of Austrian Vorarlberger Bergkäse (VB), an artisanal surface-ripened cheese, by using quantitative and qualitative approaches. The real-time quantitative PCR results revealed that bacteria were more abundant than fungi in VB rinds throughout ripening, although both kingdoms were abundant along the process. The qualitative investigation was performed by high-throughput gene-targeted (amplicon) sequencing. The results showed dynamic changes of the rind microbiota throughout ripening. In the fresh products, VB rinds were dominated by Staphylococcus equorum and Candida. At early ripening times (14–30 days) Psychrobacter and Debaryomyces flourished, although their high abundance was limited to these time points. At the latest ripening times (90–160 days), VB rinds were dominated by S. equorum, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, and Scopulariopsis. Strong correlations were shown for specific bacteria and fungi linked to specific ripening periods. This study deepens our understanding of VB ripening and highlights different bacteria and fungi associated to specific ripening periods which may influence the organoleptic properties of the final products. View Full-Text
Keywords: cheese ripening; bacteria; fungi; quantification; gene-targeted-sequencing cheese ripening; bacteria; fungi; quantification; gene-targeted-sequencing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Quijada, N.M.; Schmitz-Esser, S.; Zwirzitz, B.; Guse, C.; Strachan, C.R.; Wagner, M.; Wetzels, S.U.; Selberherr, E.; Dzieciol, M. Austrian Raw-Milk Hard-Cheese Ripening Involves Successional Dynamics of Non-Inoculated Bacteria and Fungi. Foods 2020, 9, 1851. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121851

AMA Style

Quijada NM, Schmitz-Esser S, Zwirzitz B, Guse C, Strachan CR, Wagner M, Wetzels SU, Selberherr E, Dzieciol M. Austrian Raw-Milk Hard-Cheese Ripening Involves Successional Dynamics of Non-Inoculated Bacteria and Fungi. Foods. 2020; 9(12):1851. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121851

Chicago/Turabian Style

Quijada, Narciso M., Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Benjamin Zwirzitz, Christian Guse, Cameron R. Strachan, Martin Wagner, Stefanie U. Wetzels, Evelyne Selberherr, and Monika Dzieciol. 2020. "Austrian Raw-Milk Hard-Cheese Ripening Involves Successional Dynamics of Non-Inoculated Bacteria and Fungi" Foods 9, no. 12: 1851. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121851

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