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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Apple Juice Concentration on Cider Fermentation and Properties of the Final Product

1
Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15A, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
2
Division of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 12616 Tallinn, Estonia
3
Division of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 12616 Tallinn, Estonia
4
Lallemand Inc., 1620 Rue Préfontaine, Montréal, QC H1W 2N8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101401
Received: 16 September 2020 / Revised: 27 September 2020 / Accepted: 28 September 2020 / Published: 2 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
European legislation overall agrees that apple juice concentrate is allowed to be used to some extent in cider production. However, no comprehensive research is available to date on the differences in suitability for fermentation between fresh apple juice and that of reconstituted apple juice concentrate. This study aimed to apply freshly pressed juice and juice concentrate made from the same apple cultivar as a substrate for cider fermentation. Differences in yeast performance in terms of fermentation kinetics and consumption of nutrients have been assessed. Fermented ciders were compared according to volatile ester composition and off-flavor formation related to hydrogen sulfide. Based on the results, in the samples fermented with the concentrate, the yeasts consumed less fructose. The formation of long-chain fatty acid esters increased with the use of reconstituted juice concentrate while the differences in off-flavor formation could not be determined. Overall, the use of the concentrate can be considered efficient enough for the purpose of cider fermentation. However, some nutritional supplementation might be required to support the vitality of yeast. View Full-Text
Keywords: cider; juice concentrate; fermentation; gas chromatography; volatile esters; hydrogen sulfide cider; juice concentrate; fermentation; gas chromatography; volatile esters; hydrogen sulfide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rosend, J.; Kaleda, A.; Kuldjärv, R.; Arju, G.; Nisamedtinov, I. The Effect of Apple Juice Concentration on Cider Fermentation and Properties of the Final Product. Foods 2020, 9, 1401. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101401

AMA Style

Rosend J, Kaleda A, Kuldjärv R, Arju G, Nisamedtinov I. The Effect of Apple Juice Concentration on Cider Fermentation and Properties of the Final Product. Foods. 2020; 9(10):1401. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101401

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rosend, Julia; Kaleda, Aleksei; Kuldjärv, Rain; Arju, Georg; Nisamedtinov, Ildar. 2020. "The Effect of Apple Juice Concentration on Cider Fermentation and Properties of the Final Product" Foods 9, no. 10: 1401. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101401

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