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Open AccessArticle

By-Products from Winemaking and Olive Mill Value Chains for the Enrichment of Refined Olive Oil: Technological Challenges and Nutraceutical Features

1
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE), University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2
Interdepartmental Research Center “Nutraceuticals and Food for Health”, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
CISUP, Centre for Instrumentation Sharing Pisa University, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, Via Bonanno Pisano 6, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
6
Toscana Life Sciences Str. del Petriccio e Belriguardo 35, 53100 Siena, Italy
7
SALOV S.p.A., Via di Montramito, 1600, 55054 Massarosa, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101390
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 25 September 2020 / Accepted: 27 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
A growing body of literature is available about the valorization of food by-products to produce functional foods that combine the basic nutritional impact with the improvement of the health status of consumers. In this context, this study had two main objectives: (i) An innovative multistep extraction process for the production of a refined olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds (PE-ROO) extracted from olive pomace, olive leaves, or grape marc was presented and discussed. (ii) The most promising PE-ROOs were selected and utilized in in vitro and in vivo trials in order to determine their effectiveness in the management of high fat diet-induced-metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in rats. The best results were obtained when olive leaves were used as source of phenols, regardless of the chemical composition of the solvent utilized for the extraction. Furthermore, while ethanol/hexane mixture was confirmed as a good solvent for the extraction of phenols compounds soluble in oil, the mix ROO/ethanol also showed a good extracting power from olive leaves. Besides, the ROO enriched with phenols extracted from olive leaves revealed an interesting beneficial effect to counteract high fat diet-induced-metabolic disorder and oxidative stress in rats, closely followed by ROO enriched by utilizing grape marc. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenol-enriched olive oil; grape marc; olive pomace; olive leaves; phenols; in vitro model; in vivo model; cardiovascular diseases; cancer diseases; metabolic syndrome phenol-enriched olive oil; grape marc; olive pomace; olive leaves; phenols; in vitro model; in vivo model; cardiovascular diseases; cancer diseases; metabolic syndrome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Macaluso, M.; Bianchi, A.; Sanmartin, C.; Taglieri, I.; Venturi, F.; Testai, L.; Flori, L.; Calderone, V.; De Leo, M.; Braca, A.; Ciccone, V.; Donnini, S.; Guidi, L.; Zinnai, A. By-Products from Winemaking and Olive Mill Value Chains for the Enrichment of Refined Olive Oil: Technological Challenges and Nutraceutical Features. Foods 2020, 9, 1390.

AMA Style

Macaluso M, Bianchi A, Sanmartin C, Taglieri I, Venturi F, Testai L, Flori L, Calderone V, De Leo M, Braca A, Ciccone V, Donnini S, Guidi L, Zinnai A. By-Products from Winemaking and Olive Mill Value Chains for the Enrichment of Refined Olive Oil: Technological Challenges and Nutraceutical Features. Foods. 2020; 9(10):1390.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Macaluso, Monica; Bianchi, Alessandro; Sanmartin, Chiara; Taglieri, Isabella; Venturi, Francesca; Testai, Lara; Flori, Lorenzo; Calderone, Vincenzo; De Leo, Marinella; Braca, Alessandra; Ciccone, Valerio; Donnini, Sandra; Guidi, Luca; Zinnai, Angela. 2020. "By-Products from Winemaking and Olive Mill Value Chains for the Enrichment of Refined Olive Oil: Technological Challenges and Nutraceutical Features" Foods 9, no. 10: 1390.

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