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Open AccessArticle

Detection of Additives and Chemical Contaminants in Turmeric Powder Using FT-IR Spectroscopy

1
United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Bldg. 303, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA
2
China Agricultural University, National R&D Centre for Agro-Processing Equipments, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(5), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050143
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection Methods for Food Fraud and Food Contaminants)
Yellow turmeric (Curcuma longa) is widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes, and as a dietary supplement. Due to the commercial popularity of C. longa, economic adulteration and contamination with botanical additives and chemical substances has increased. This study used FT-IR spectroscopy for identifying and estimating white turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria), and Sudan Red G dye mixed with yellow turmeric powder. Fifty replicates of yellow turmeric—Sudan Red mixed samples (1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% Sudan Red, w/w) and fifty replicates of yellow turmeric—white turmeric mixed samples (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% white turmeric, w/w) were prepared. The IR spectra of the pure compounds and mixtures were analyzed. The 748 cm−1 Sudan Red peak and the 1078 cm−1 white turmeric peak were used as spectral fingerprints. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was developed for each mixture type to estimate adulteration concentrations. The coefficient of determination (R2v) for the Sudan Red mixture model was 0.97 with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) equal to 1.3%. R2v and RMSEP for the white turmeric model were 0.95 and 3.0%, respectively. Our results indicate that the method developed in this study can be used to identify and quantify yellow turmeric powder adulteration. View Full-Text
Keywords: FT-IR; Sudan dye; white turmeric; turmeric; curcumin; adulteration; food safety FT-IR; Sudan dye; white turmeric; turmeric; curcumin; adulteration; food safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dhakal, S.; Schmidt, W.F.; Kim, M.; Tang, X.; Peng, Y.; Chao, K. Detection of Additives and Chemical Contaminants in Turmeric Powder Using FT-IR Spectroscopy. Foods 2019, 8, 143. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050143

AMA Style

Dhakal S, Schmidt WF, Kim M, Tang X, Peng Y, Chao K. Detection of Additives and Chemical Contaminants in Turmeric Powder Using FT-IR Spectroscopy. Foods. 2019; 8(5):143. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050143

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dhakal, Sagar; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon; Tang, Xiuying; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin. 2019. "Detection of Additives and Chemical Contaminants in Turmeric Powder Using FT-IR Spectroscopy" Foods 8, no. 5: 143. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050143

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