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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Controlled Microbial Fermentation on Nutritional and Functional Characteristics of Cowpea Bean Flours

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CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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WM&B—Wine Microbiology & Biotechnology Lab, Department of Biology and Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculty of Sciences University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
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University of Estado da Bahia, Department of Life Sciences, Cabula, CEP 41150-000, Salvador-BA, Brazil
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REQUIMTE, LAQV/Faculty of Pharmacy from University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n.º 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(11), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110530
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Fermented Foods)
This study aimed to optimize bean flours fermentation through the use of appropriate technological procedure and, thereby, to obtain a high quality and safe product. In this line, cowpea bean flours with different moisture conditions (10, 20 and 30%) were incubated with (1) a single culture of Lactobacillus plantarum, or (2) a consortium of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria, together with one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Effects of inoculation of cowpea beans flours on stability (i.e., evaluated by the decrease in pH), and variations in nutritional characteristics (i.e., protein, starch, water soluble carbohydrates, total dietary fibre) were investigated. In both fermented flours, the effect of fermentation was more noticeable in total water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration during the fermentation process (P < 0.001), accounted for by metabolic activity of the microorganisms. The pH values progressively decreased (P < 0.001) through the fermentation process, particularly in flours fermented with a single culture of L. plantarum. By contrast, titratable acidity increased (P < 0.001) throughout the fermentation process in F2 and F3, although more noticeable in F3. Total dietary fibre (TDF) was not variable over the time. In relation to the protein content, the fermentations behaved very similarly; F2 had a variation over the time, but the effect was not significant (P = 0.0690). Results revealed small changes in chemical composition except in the case of pH and sugar contents with the values lower in the fermented products (i.e., single- or mixed-culture fermentation), leading to a more stable and safety product. These results indicate that fermented dry beans flours have the potential as functional ingredients for new food formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: cowpea beans flours; fermentation; single and mixed-culture; nutritional value; antioxidant activity cowpea beans flours; fermentation; single and mixed-culture; nutritional value; antioxidant activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, L.M.M.; Mendes-Ferreira, A.; Benevides, C.M.J.; Melo, D.; Costa, A.S.G.; Mendes-Faia, A.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P. Effect of Controlled Microbial Fermentation on Nutritional and Functional Characteristics of Cowpea Bean Flours. Foods 2019, 8, 530.

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