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Open AccessArticle

Bioactive Compounds from Norway Spruce Bark: Comparison Among Sustainable Extraction Techniques for Potential Food Applications

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Department of Agricultural Sciences, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25–71121 Foggia, Italy
2
Department of Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
3
The EFI Project Centre on Mountain Forests (MOUNTFOR), Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(11), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110524
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants: Innovative Extraction and Application in Foods)
Picea abies (L.) Karst, (Norway spruce) bark, generally considered as wood industry waste, could potentially be used as a valuable source of antioxidants for food applications. In this study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were carried out in order to recover bioactive compounds from bark of Norway spruce. Obtained results show that PLE with ethanol as solvent was the most effective method for extracting total flavonoid compounds (21.14 ± 1.42 mg quercetin g−1 sample) and consequently exerted the highest antioxidant activity measured by 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (257.11 ± 13.31 mg Trolox g−1 sample). On the other hand, UAE extract contained the maximum phenolic concentration (54.97 ± 2.00 mg gallic acid g−1 sample) and the most interesting antioxidant activity measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (580.25 ± 25.18 µmol FeSO4 g−1 sample). Additionally, PLE and UAE have demonstrated great efficiency in the extraction of trans-resveratrol, quantified by HPLC (0.19 and 0.29 mg trans-RSV g−1 sample, respectively). View Full-Text
Keywords: supercritical fluid extraction; pressurized liquid extraction; ultrasound-assisted extraction; trans-resveratrol; Norway spruce bark supercritical fluid extraction; pressurized liquid extraction; ultrasound-assisted extraction; trans-resveratrol; Norway spruce bark
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spinelli, S.; Costa, C.; Conte, A.; La Porta, N.; Padalino, L.; Del Nobile, M.A. Bioactive Compounds from Norway Spruce Bark: Comparison Among Sustainable Extraction Techniques for Potential Food Applications. Foods 2019, 8, 524.

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