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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of the Structural Properties and Nutritional Fraction of Corn Starch Treated with Thermophilic GH13 and GH57 α-Glucan Branching Enzymes

1
Department of Oriental Food and Culinary Arts, Youngsan University, Busan 48015, Korea
2
Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
3
Microbiological Resource Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100452
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
Two thermophilic 1,4-α-glucan branching enzymes (GBEs), CbGBE from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and PhGBE from Pyrococcus horikoshii, which belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 13 and 57 respectively, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Two GBEs were identified to have α-1,6 branching activity against various substrates, but substrate specificity was distinct. Starch was modified by two GBEs and their in vitro digestibility and structural properties were investigated. Short-branched A chains with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 6–12 increased with CbGBE-modified starch, increasing the proportion of slow digestible and resistant starch (RS) fractions. PhGBE-modified starch resulted in an increase in the RS fraction only by a slight increase in part of A chains (DP, 6–9). Compared to the proportion of control not treated with GBE, the proportion of α-1,6 linkages in CbGBE- and PhGBE-modified starch increased by 3.1 and 1.6 times. 13C cross polarization/magic angle sample spinning (CP/MAS) NMR and XRD pattern analysis described that GBE-modified starches reconstructed double helices but not the crystalline structure. Taken together, CbGBE and PhGBE showed distinct branching activities, resulting in different α-1,6 branching ratios and chain length distribution, and double helices amount of starch, ultimately affecting starch digestibility. Therefore, these GBEs can be used to produce customized starches with controlled digestion rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: starch; α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE); branching activity; in vitro digestibility starch; α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE); branching activity; in vitro digestibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, I.; Park, M.; Yoon, N.; Cha, J. Comparison of the Structural Properties and Nutritional Fraction of Corn Starch Treated with Thermophilic GH13 and GH57 α-Glucan Branching Enzymes. Foods 2019, 8, 452.

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