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Effect of Multiple Micronutrient Fortification on Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Chhash (Traditional Indian Yogurt-Based Drink)

Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
PDF [1283 KB, uploaded 22 December 2018]


Introduction: Micronutrient malnutrition is a persistent problem in India mainly due to low dietary diversity and poor nutrient density of staple foods. The addition of a commercial micronutrient mix in terms of physico-chemical and sensory characteristics was evaluated. Methods: The yogurt prepared with reduce-fat milk (2%), 20 g/L CHN-11 fermentation culture and 12 h incubation (42 °C) was diluted at a rate of 35% to yield a 32 mg/100 mL concentration. The premix provided vitamin A, vitamin D, folic acid, iodine, iron, and zinc oxide to cover ~20–35% recommended RDA (recommended dietary allowance) per serving (250 mL). A three-factorial design, 2 treatments (control and fortified), 3 temperatures (4, 25, and 40 °C) and 4 time points (1, 2, 3 and 6 days), was used to analyze the physico-chemical properties in terms of titratable acidity, pH, color, and viscosity. A discriminatory sensory test (triangle) was performed with college students (n = 58) and mothers with young children (n = 25), who were living in Mehsana, India to evaluate the difference between fortified and non-fortified cooled (4 °C) product. Results: Fortification did not affect most of the physico-chemical properties of chhash. As expected, titratable acidity increased whereas pH decreased with increasing storage time and temperature. Fortified samples showed higher b* values, whereas L* and a* were not affected. Viscosity changed due to temperature and time, but not fortification. Participants could not discriminate between samples in terms of color, aroma, and taste. Conclusion: Fortification of chhash is technically feasible. View Full-Text
Keywords: fortification; malnutrition; micronutrient; fermented product fortification; malnutrition; micronutrient; fermented product

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Gaur, S.; Waller, A.W.; Andrade, J.E. Effect of Multiple Micronutrient Fortification on Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Chhash (Traditional Indian Yogurt-Based Drink). Foods 2019, 8, 5.

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