Next Article in Journal
Predicted Release and Analysis of Novel ACE-I, Renin, and DPP-IV Inhibitory Peptides from Common Oat (Avena sativa) Protein Hydrolysates Using in Silico Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Physiology of the Inactivation of Vegetative Bacteria by Thermal Treatments: Mode of Action, Influence of Environmental Factors and Inactivation Kinetics
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Foods 2017, 6(12), 109;

Methylxanthine Content in Commonly Consumed Foods in Spain and Determination of Its Intake during Consumption

Chemistry Department, University of Girona, 17003-Girona, Spain
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [1187 KB, uploaded 4 December 2017]   |  


Methylxanthines present psychostimulant effects. These compounds have low toxicity and their consumption at moderate levels presents some beneficial health effects, whereas some significant risk appears at high levels. Samples of common types of methylxanthine-containing beverages and foods consumed in Spain were analyzed to determine their content. Caffeine was the methylxanthine that was most found in the samples investigated. Instant coffees gave the highest caffeine percentage (18–44 mg·g−1). Green and scented teas were found to have a caffeine dry-weight content (8–26 mg·g−1) equivalent to ground coffees (13–23 mg·g−1), but black and pu-erh teas (18–30 mg·g−1) had a higher caffeine content. The evaluation of the most conventional methods for preparing espresso coffees showed that an espresso contains between 88–116 mg of caffeine. In the case of tea beverages, the amount of caffeine present was 2–3 times smaller than in espresso coffees. Energy drinks showed a similar caffeine content (80–106 mg) as espresso coffees. Chocolates had the lowest caffeine content. It has been found that none of the foods evaluated reach the recommended daily intake limit of 400 mg of caffeine with a single dose. This limit can be reached with 4–5 doses in the case of coffees and energy drinks. In the case of chocolates, the methylxanthine compound detected at large levels was theobromine, with amounts ranging from 4 to 10 mg·g−1 for dark chocolates. View Full-Text
Keywords: methylxanthine; caffeine; theobromine; tea; coffee; chocolate; soft-drink methylxanthine; caffeine; theobromine; tea; coffee; chocolate; soft-drink

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sanchez, J.M. Methylxanthine Content in Commonly Consumed Foods in Spain and Determination of Its Intake during Consumption. Foods 2017, 6, 109.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top