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Article

Efficacy of 405 nm Light-Emitting Diode Illumination and Citral Used Alone and in Combination for Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on Shrimp

1
College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang 712100, China
2
School of Food Science and Technology, National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sara Spilimbergo
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142008
Received: 16 June 2022 / Revised: 29 June 2022 / Accepted: 30 June 2022 / Published: 7 July 2022
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a widely distributed pathogen, which is frequently the lead cause of infections related to seafood consumption. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the combination of 405 nm light-emitting diode (LED) and citral on V. parahaemolyticus. The antimicrobial effect of LED illumination and citral was evaluated on V. parahaemolyticus not only in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) but also on shrimp. Quality changes of shrimp were determined by sensory evaluation. Changes in bacteria cell membrane morphology, cell membrane permeability, cell lipid oxidation level, and DNA degradation were examined to provide insights into the antimicrobial mechanism. The combination of LED treatments and citral had better antimicrobial effects than either treatment alone. LED combined with 0.1 mg/mL of citral effectively reduced V. parahaemolyticus from 6.5 log CFU/mL to below the detection limit in PBS. Combined treatment caused a 3.5 log reduction of the pathogen on shrimp within 20 min and a 6 log reduction within 2 h without significant changes in the sensory score. Furthermore, combined LED and citral treatment affected V. parahaemolyticus cellular morphology and outer membrane integrity. The profile of the comet assay and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that combination treatment did not cause a breakdown of bacterial genomic DNA. In conclusion, LED may act synergistically with citral. They have the potential to be developed as novel microbial intervention strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: 405 nm LED; Vibrio parahaemolyticus; citral; shrimp; cell membrane 405 nm LED; Vibrio parahaemolyticus; citral; shrimp; cell membrane
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.; Guo, D.; Liu, Z.; Gao, J.; Zhan, X.; Wang, Y.; Shi, C.; Xia, X. Efficacy of 405 nm Light-Emitting Diode Illumination and Citral Used Alone and in Combination for Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on Shrimp. Foods 2022, 11, 2008. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142008

AMA Style

Zhang Y, Wang S, Guo D, Liu Z, Gao J, Zhan X, Wang Y, Shi C, Xia X. Efficacy of 405 nm Light-Emitting Diode Illumination and Citral Used Alone and in Combination for Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on Shrimp. Foods. 2022; 11(14):2008. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142008

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Yingying, Shuo Wang, Du Guo, Zhiyuan Liu, Jianxue Gao, Xiangjun Zhan, Yutang Wang, Chao Shi, and Xiaodong Xia. 2022. "Efficacy of 405 nm Light-Emitting Diode Illumination and Citral Used Alone and in Combination for Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on Shrimp" Foods 11, no. 14: 2008. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142008

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