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Article

Temporal Sensory Perceptions of Sugar-Reduced 3D Printed Chocolates

1
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2P5, Canada
2
Chemical and Food Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HUTECH), Ho Chi Minh City 70000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Min Zhang
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092082
Received: 8 July 2021 / Revised: 31 August 2021 / Accepted: 31 August 2021 / Published: 3 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
Sugar-reduced chocolates with desirable sensory qualities and sweetness can be created using a 3D printer by layering chocolates with different sugar concentrations. This study aimed to evaluate the temporal sensory profile, perceived sweetness intensity, and acceptance of prototype sugar-reduced and non-sugar-reduced 3D printed chocolates. A consumer panel (n = 72) evaluated the sensory profiles of six-layered chocolates. Sensory profiles were determined by temporal dominance of sensations (TDS), overall sweetness by a five-point intensity scale, overall liking by the nine-point hedonic scale, and differences among chocolates over time were visualized by principal component analysis (PCA). Layering by 3D printing achieved a 19% reduction in sugar without changes in the perceived overall sweetness and overall liking. Layering order of high and low sugar chocolate influenced the perceived overall sweetness and temporal sensory profiles of 3D printed chocolates with different total sugar concentrations. The dominance of attributes associated with milk chocolate was observed to increase sweetness perception while the dominance of attributes associated with dark chocolate was observed to decrease overall sweetness perception. Three-dimensional food printing technology is progressing rapidly, and further sugar reduction could be achieved with refined research methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; chocolate; temporal sensory methods; sugar reduction; TDS; spatial distribution; liking 3D printing; chocolate; temporal sensory methods; sugar reduction; TDS; spatial distribution; liking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khemacheevakul, K.; Wolodko, J.; Nguyen, H.; Wismer, W. Temporal Sensory Perceptions of Sugar-Reduced 3D Printed Chocolates. Foods 2021, 10, 2082. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092082

AMA Style

Khemacheevakul K, Wolodko J, Nguyen H, Wismer W. Temporal Sensory Perceptions of Sugar-Reduced 3D Printed Chocolates. Foods. 2021; 10(9):2082. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khemacheevakul, Khemiga, John Wolodko, Ha Nguyen, and Wendy Wismer. 2021. "Temporal Sensory Perceptions of Sugar-Reduced 3D Printed Chocolates" Foods 10, no. 9: 2082. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092082

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