Rice is consumed as a staple food by more than 4 billion people around the globe [1
]. Rice is a significant source of dietary nutrients such as carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals [4
]. For populations that rely on rice as a staple food, it delivers approximately 21% of the consumed energy and 15% of the consumed protein [6
Australia produces high quality rice from different varieties, which are categorised as aromatic Thai jasmine origin and non-aromatic rice [7
]. Aromatic rice varieties have distinctive popcorn like flavour notes due to the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline [7
]. Furthermore, rice can be classified based on the milling process. The milling of the whole grain results in brown rice, and a further removal of bran and germ results in white rice. [11
]. Although white rice is more commonly consumed, brown rice is considered healthier due to nutritional components such as lipids, proteins, dietary fibre, and polyphenols [12
The sensory profile of rice is an important driver of consumer acceptance. Sensory attributes have a strong influence on product selection, consumption, and purchase decisions [14
]. Sensory attributes such as physical appearance (i.e., uniformity, cleanliness, brightness, glossiness and translucency of the rice grain) [16
], taste (e.g., sweetness, bitterness), and aroma (e.g., floral notes) are drivers of liking [17
] that affect consumer acceptance of rice.
Furthermore, rice texture (i.e., cohesiveness, softness) has been suggested to be of high importance for consumer acceptance of rice. A previous study reported that brown rice texture was less liked compared to white rice and there was variation in liking of the various textures of different brown rice varieties [18
]. Along the same lines, Suwansri et al. suggested that an increase in the hardness of rice is associated with a lower consumer acceptability [19
]. The importance of texture has also been emphasised by Maleki et al., who suggests that consumers can be segmented based on their preference for different rice textures [20
]. In their study, fluffiness was a driver of liking for the majority of consumers (44%), whereas for smaller segments of consumers, liking was mainly driven by flavour attributes.
Within each rice variety, the milling process (e.g., white vs. brown rice) alters the nutrient composition and sensory attributes [21
]. For example, brown rice has a higher lipid content compared with white rice. The lipid context affects the sensory profile due to lipid oxidation in the bran layer of brown rice [22
]. Lipid oxidation leads to the development of off flavours [23
], which potentially impact consumer perception and acceptance. In short, differences in the acceptance of white and brown rice are likely caused by differences in sensory profiles, which are related to differences in nutrient composition [24
In Australia, 90% of rice is consumed as white rice, whereas only 10% is consumed as brown rice [25
], which is similar to global rice consumption patterns [25
]. Brown rice is considered a healthier option than white rice [27
]. To understand what drives the difference in consumption of brown and white rice, it is important to investigate the sensory differences of brown and white rice.
The objective of this study was to identify the drivers of liking of Australian grown brown and white rice varieties. It will provide important information for rice industry and breeding programmes for the development of new rice varieties to meet consumer needs.
2. Participants, Materials, and Methods
2.1. Study Design
A within-subjects crossover design with randomised order (William’s Latin Square design) for liking and Just About Right scales with six repeated samples was used in the present study. To determine the required participant sample size, G*power [Version 22.214.171.124, Franz Faul, Universitat Kiel, Kiel, Germany] was used. Based on six measurements (six rice samples) comparisons within subjects with alpha level 0.05, power of 0.8, and a small effect size (f = 0.10), the minimum sample size was 109. To account for potential dropouts, 140 participants from Consumer Analytical Safety Sensory (CASS) Food Research Centre database were recruited. Participants were excluded if they had food allergies, dietary restrictions, and/or were pregnant or lactating. Participants were asked to refrain from eating, drinking, or brushing their teeth one hour prior to testing. The rice consumer study was approved by the research ethics committee Deakin University (HEAG-H 29_2018).
Participants were asked to complete two questionnaires concerning (1) demographics (age, gender, education, and marital status), and (2) rice consumption (type of rice (brown or white), number of times they eat rice daily, weekly or fortnightly, and awareness of brown rice health benefits). To assess the liking and sensory perception of the rice samples before and after tasting the rice samples, participants filled out 9-point hedonic scales (1 = extremely dislike and 9 = extremely like) [28
] for overall liking, aroma, colour, and texture. In addition, participants completed Just About Right scales for aroma intensity, colour, hardness, fluffiness, stickiness, and chewiness, similar to previous published research [29
]. A Just About Right scale, is a bipolar labelled attribute scale [30
], which has an anchored mid-point that corresponded to Just About Right for each attribute [31
]. The Just About Right scales provided the participants with 3 answer options per sensory attribute (1 = not enough, 2 = Just about Right, 3 = too much) [32
Three most commonly consumed Australian rice varieties (Jasmine rice (Kyeema), Low GI (Doongara) and Medium grain (Amaroo) (Table 1
)) with both brown and white rice types were sourced from Sunrice (Ricegrowers Ltd., Leeton, Australia) Australia [33
Rice samples were washed 2 to 3 times in cold running water until the water ran clear. Rice samples were cooked in dedicated rice cookers (“Grain Master” HD4514/72_ UM_ US_v1.0, Philips, China), to avoid cross flavour contamination, according to manufacturer’s instructions with specific water to rice ratios (Table 1
). Rice samples and water quantities were measured by a measuring cup. Rice was cooked at quick rice cooking mode and kept warm at 600 C (as measured by an infrared thermometer Xintest HT-88A; Dongguan Xintai Instrument Co., Guangdong, China) in the rice cooker for no longer than the duration of the sensory test (approximately 45 min).
2.4. Testing Procedure
Sensory testing took place in a sensory laboratory, which consisted of partitioned booths and a high capacity air filtration system, of the CASS Food Research Centre, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. On arrival, participants were instructed to carefully read the Plain Language Statement and sign the consent form. Ten participants participated in each one hour session. Rice samples were served to the participants in 30 mL clear plastic medicine cups that were labelled with three digit unique codes. Each cup contained 10 g of rice and participants were instructed to consume at least one teaspoon of rice. The rice samples were randomly presented one at a time directly from the rice cooker at a temperature of 55 ± 3 °C. The participants were instructed to rinse their mouth with filtered water for five seconds and use crackers between tasting the different rice samples.
The test consisted of two parts (i.e., before tasting, after tasting). In the first part, the participants received the following instruction: “do not eat the rice samples, only look, feel (e.g., hold the rice between your fingers) and smell the rice”. Next, participants were asked to rate overall liking and their liking for aroma and colour on a 9-point hedonic scale, and fluffiness, stickiness, hardness, and aroma intensity on Just About Right Scales.
In the second part, the participants were instructed to taste the rice samples (one by one) and rate on 9-point hedonic scales, their overall liking, and texture for each rice sample. In addition, participants rated their perceived intensity of flavour, fluffiness, hardness and chewiness on Just About Right scales. There was a one minute break after the tasting of each sample to avoid tasting fatigue of the participants.
The data were collected on computers using Compusense Software Academic Consortium (Compusense, Inc., Guelph, ON, Canada). Gift vouchers (50AUD) were served to each participant on completion of the rice consumer test.
2.5. Statistical Analysis
All rice consumer study data were exported from Compusense Cloud into Microsoft Excel version 1708 (Microsoft Corporation) for data cleaning. For the statistical analysis of liking, the program Stata/IC 15.0 (StataCorp LLC, 4905 Lakeway Drive, College Station, TX 77845, USA) was used. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient) were calculated for overall liking scores and all sensory attributes. Box plots and scatter plots were extracted for overall liking and for other sensory attributes. Linear mixed model approach was used to analyse repeated measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) data to determine the effect of rice varieties (Jasmine, Low GI and medium grain rice samples) and rice types (brown, white) on overall liking, aroma, colour, and texture linking. This approach accounts for within subject autocorrelation via a random intercept in the model. The combined effect of rice varieties and types of rice was tested through a model that contained the main effects of rice type (brown and white) and varieties (Jasmine, Low GI and Medium Grain) as well as the two-way interaction between varieties, and types of rice. The post-hoc pairwise comparison (Bonferroni adjusted) was conducted to identify the significant difference in sensory attributes among rice varieties and rice types.
The descriptive statistics for Just About Right attributes, overall liking, and penalty analysis (p
< 0.05) of brown and white rice from the three varieties were conducted in XLSTAT Sensory version 2020.3 (Addinsoft, New York, NY, USA). The penalty was a weighted difference between means (mean liking of JAR category minus the mean of liking for other two levels (too low and too high) taken together) [32
]. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were calculated. Mean drop plots were extracted to identify the effect of JAR attributes on overall liking of rice. The mean drops were plotted against the percentage of consumers. For penalty analysis and mean drop plots, 20% consumers were considered as the threshold level for each JAR attribute [30
This study aimed to identify the consumer liking, sensory attributes, and drivers of liking of brown and white rice varieties. The results suggest that, overall, participants liked Jasmine rice varieties more than Low GI and Medium grain rice varieties. This was also reflected in a higher liking of the aroma, colour, and texture of Jasmine rice, compared to Low GI and Medium grain rice varieties. However, white rice was preferred over brown rice regardless of rice varieties.
The present study suggests, in line with previous studies [19
], that texture, colour, and aroma are important drivers of consumer liking for rice. However, these drivers of liking do not seem to equally explain the differences in liking of white and brown rice. Indeed, differences in aroma mainly explain the difference in liking for white rice varieties and the aroma of Jasmine white rice was liked more than any of the other rice varieties. The most liked white rice (Jasmine rice), contains more of the compound 2-acetyle-1-pyrroline [10
] which is known to elicit a distinctive popcorn/pandan aroma [3
] that has a strong impact on consumer acceptance of rice [41
]. On the other hand, the other white rice (non-fragrant) varieties contain less 2AP [42
] that may have an impact on liking of non-fragrant white rice varieties. This is also reflected in the sensory data of the present study that aroma of Jasmine white rice is an important sensory attribute in predicting consumer liking and acceptance of white rice varieties. Therefore, the aroma of Jasmine white rice was preferred over all other white and brown rice varieties. In contrast to aroma being able to explain liking differences for white rice varieties, aroma does not fully explain differences in liking for brown rice.
Differences between brown rice varieties can be explained by texture (hardness and chewiness). This means that brown rice is considered as too hard and chewy in texture, which is driving the difference between brown rice varieties, whereas Jasmine brown rice was preferred over Low GI and Medium grain brown rice. The results are in line with a previous study conducted on ready-to-eat rice in Korea which concluded that the brown rice was scored less in overall acceptability due to being high in hardness, chewiness, and yellowness [18
]. Brown rice hardness in texture is associated with dietary fibre that is present in bran layer [45
] whereas, in white rice, polishing removes bran and germ during rice processing [46
]. This significantly improves texture liking and consumer acceptance of white rice. In contrast to previous studies, which used a combination of descriptive analysis and hedonic scaling [16
], the current study investigated consumer acceptance of rice by utilising 9-Point hedonic scales, JAR scales, and penalty analysis. Penalty analysis is a powerful tool to analyse the decreases in acceptability associated with sensory attributes which are perceived by consumers as being not optional [47
]. This study also compared a range of brown and white rice varieties which enabled to compare brown and white rice, but also identify the drivers of liking between brown rice varieties as well as the drivers of liking within white. In addition, it is interesting to note that rice texture (hardness) is more important for the consumer acceptance and overall liking of Australian brown rice varieties. This study suggests that the decrease in hardness and chewiness will increase the overall liking of Australian brown rice varieties, which can eventually increase brown rice acceptance and consumption.
Brown rice texture (hardness and chewiness) and colour are the sensory attributes that are driving the difference between white and brown rice varieties. Thus, the texture of brown rice is less liked as compare to white rice regardless of rice varieties, because the majority of participants rated brown rice varieties as too hard and too chewy. However, differences in texture seem to be more important when comparing liking between white and brown rice. This is in line with a study conducted on consumer acceptance of parboiled brown and white rice which reported that white rice was preferred to brown rice because of texture and colour [24
]. The results are also in agreement with the study that reported consumer acceptance of white rice varieties in Thailand, in which the participants preferred cooked white rice because of the soft texture [36
]. Suwansri and Meullenet (2004) reported that Asian consumers preferred rice with white appearance (colour) and less sticky texture [49
]. Similarly, the consumers from South Asia and Middle East did not prefer the brown rice texture [50
]. In the present study, the sensory results also suggest that brown rice texture (hardness and chewiness) is the most important sensory attribute that is driving the liking and consumer acceptance of brown rice.
Although this was the first study which investigated consumer acceptance of Australian brown and white rice varieties, there are some limitations which need to be taken into consideration. The participants were mainly living in urban areas and were well educated, with 79% of participants holding undergraduate degree or higher. That may have affected their liking because of their awareness of the brown and white rice varieties which may cause bias in evaluation of rice attributes. For future investigation, the sample (participants) could be recruited from different geographical areas to predict the preference of Australian brown and white rice varieties. It is suggested to conduct future studies with a greater focus on the texture attributes of brown rice. To identify the variability in the texture of brown rice, different cooking methods and water to rice ratios are recommended. In addition, the instrumental analysis (colour and texture analyser) can be considered for the better understanding of texture attributes of brown and white rice varieties.