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Article

Gas-Diffusion Microextraction (GDME) Combined with Derivatization for Assessing Beer Staling Aldehydes: Validation and Application

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REQUIMTE/LAQV, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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REQUIMTE/LAQV, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carlos A. Blanco and Isabel Caballero
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1704; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081704
Received: 4 June 2021 / Revised: 14 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies to Improve Beer Quality)
In this work, a gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME) methodology was optimized and validated for the analysis of selected staling aldehydes (furfural (FURF), 2-methylpropanal (2-MP), 2-methylbutanal (2-MB), 3-methylbutanal (3-MB), and acetaldehyde (ACET)) during natural and forced aging of beer. The methodology was optimized considering time, temperature of extraction, and derivatizing agent. Using 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HBA) as a derivatizing agent, the performance of the method was evaluated by assessing several parameters such as detection limits (ranging from 1.2 to 1857.7 µg/L for 2-MB and ACET, respectively), quantification limits (ranging from 3.9 to 6192.4 µg/L for 2-MB and ACET, respectively), recoveries (higher than 96%), intraday and interday precisions (lower than 3.4 and 9.2%, respectively), and linearity (r2 ≥ 0.995). During beer aging, higher content of Strecker aldehydes and FURF were found, while no significant variations in ACET levels were observed. In general, the aldehydes content assessed for beers stored at 37 ± 1 °C for 7 and 14 days mimics that observed for beers stored at 20 ± 2 °C for 3 and 6 months, respectively. Lower temperatures of storage (4 ± 1 °C) delayed the development of staling aldehydes. Based on PCA analysis, the content of staling aldehydes and beer color were responsible for 91.39% of the variance among the analyzed samples, and it was demonstrated that these are key parameters to discriminate fresh from aged beers. The results herein presented showed that the proposed analytic methodology is a valuable strategy for the characterization and quantification of important staling aldehydes in beer with a potential application in the quality control of beer during storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: beer aging; carbonyl compounds; Strecker aldehydes; GDME; microextraction beer aging; carbonyl compounds; Strecker aldehydes; GDME; microextraction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, I.M.; Carvalho, D.O.; da Silva, M.G.; Guido, L.F. Gas-Diffusion Microextraction (GDME) Combined with Derivatization for Assessing Beer Staling Aldehydes: Validation and Application. Foods 2021, 10, 1704. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081704

AMA Style

Ferreira IM, Carvalho DO, da Silva MG, Guido LF. Gas-Diffusion Microextraction (GDME) Combined with Derivatization for Assessing Beer Staling Aldehydes: Validation and Application. Foods. 2021; 10(8):1704. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081704

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferreira, Inês M., Daniel O. Carvalho, Marco Gomes da Silva, and Luís Ferreira Guido. 2021. "Gas-Diffusion Microextraction (GDME) Combined with Derivatization for Assessing Beer Staling Aldehydes: Validation and Application" Foods 10, no. 8: 1704. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081704

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