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Article

The Composition, Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity, and Sensory Properties of Estonian Honeys

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Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
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Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies (CFFT), Akadeemia tee 15a, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
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Estonian Maritime Academy, Tallinn University of Technology, Kopli 101, 11712 Tallinn, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paweł Kafarski
Foods 2021, 10(3), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030511
Received: 7 January 2021 / Revised: 11 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
Thirty honey samples from different regions of Estonia were investigated to determine the chemical compositions, physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds, and sensory characteristics of typical honeys from a northern climate. The physicochemical parameters, such as electrical conductivity, moisture content, free acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, and invertase activity were measured. The color was measured and expressed by L*-, a*-, and b*-coordinates. Sensory parameters were determined by using “fruity”, “floral”, “berry-like”, “herbal”, “woody”, “spicy”, “sweet”, and “animal-like” as the main odor and flavor attributes. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were in the range of 26.2–88.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100 g and 1.9–6.4 mg quercetin equivalents (QE) per 100 g, respectively. The identified polyphenols showed the highest intensities of caffeic acid, coumaric acid, and abscisic acid and its derivatives. The protocatechuic acid intensity was highest in honeys containing traces of honeydew elements and of cinnamic acid and myricetin in heather honey. The water-soluble antioxidant values were 37.8–311.2 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE) per 100 g and the lipid soluble antioxidant values were 14.4–60.7 mg Trolox equivalents (TE) per 100 g. The major amino acid in the analyzed honeys was proline, with variable values depending on the honey’s botanical source. Correlations were calculated based on the results obtained. It was revealed that the typical Estonian honey has floral, berry-like, sweet, and rather mild sensory characteristics. Most of the honeys lacked stronger spicy, woody, and animal-like attributes. The typical color of Estonian honey is quite light. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey; polyphenols; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; amino acids; sensory analysis; flavor; aroma; CIELAB honey; polyphenols; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; amino acids; sensory analysis; flavor; aroma; CIELAB
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kivima, E.; Tanilas, K.; Martverk, K.; Rosenvald, S.; Timberg, L.; Laos, K. The Composition, Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity, and Sensory Properties of Estonian Honeys. Foods 2021, 10, 511. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030511

AMA Style

Kivima E, Tanilas K, Martverk K, Rosenvald S, Timberg L, Laos K. The Composition, Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity, and Sensory Properties of Estonian Honeys. Foods. 2021; 10(3):511. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030511

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kivima, Evelin, Kristel Tanilas, Kaie Martverk, Sirli Rosenvald, Loreida Timberg, and Katrin Laos. 2021. "The Composition, Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity, and Sensory Properties of Estonian Honeys" Foods 10, no. 3: 511. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030511

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