Next Article in Journal
The Impact of COVID-19 on Food Stockpiling Behavior over Time in China
Previous Article in Journal
Quality Characteristics of Senior-Friendly Gelatin Gels Formulated with Hot Water Extract from Red Maple Leaf as a Novel Anthocyanin Source
 
 
Article

Protein Enrichment of Wheat Bread with Microalgae: Microchloropsis gaditana, Tetraselmis chui and Chlorella vulgaris

1
Nofima AS—Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, PB 210, NO-1431 Ås, Norway
2
Nofima AS—Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, PB 1425 Oasen, NO-5844 Bergen, Norway
3
Department of Plant Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PB 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway
4
NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Thormøhlensgate 53, NO-5006 Bergen, Norway
5
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgate 53, NO-5006 Bergen, Norway
6
Division of Biotechnology and Plant Health, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), PB 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giorgos Markou and Leonel Pereira
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3078; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123078
Received: 10 October 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 29 November 2021 / Published: 10 December 2021
Cell wall disrupted and dried Microchloropsis gaditana (Mg), Tetraselmis chui (Tc) and Chlorella vulgaris (Cv) microalgae biomasses, with or without ethanol pre-treatment, were added to wheat bread at a wheat flour substitution level of 12%, to enrich bread protein by 30%. Baking performance, protein quality and basic sensory properties were assessed. Compared to wheat, Mg, Tc and Cv contain higher amounts of essential amino acids and their incorporation markedly improved protein quality in the bread (DIAAS 57–66 vs. 46%). The incorporation of microalgae reduced dough strength and bread volume and increased crumb firmness. This was most pronounced for Cv and Tc but could be improved by ethanol treatment. Mg gave adequate dough strength, bread volume and crumb structure without ethanol treatment. To obtain bread of acceptable smell, appearance, and colour, ethanol treatment was necessary also for Mg as it markedly reduced the unpleasant smell and intense colour of all algae breads. Ethanol treatment reduced the relative content of lysine, but no other essential amino acids. However, it also had a negative impact on in vitro protein digestibility. Our results show that Mg had the largest potential for protein fortification of bread, but further work is needed to optimize pre-processing and assess consumer acceptance. View Full-Text
Keywords: dough rheology; bread-quality; protein-quality; microalgae; Microchloropsis gaditana; Tetraselmis chui; Chlorella vulgaris dough rheology; bread-quality; protein-quality; microalgae; Microchloropsis gaditana; Tetraselmis chui; Chlorella vulgaris
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Qazi, W.M.; Ballance, S.; Kousoulaki, K.; Uhlen, A.K.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Skjånes, K.; Rieder, A. Protein Enrichment of Wheat Bread with Microalgae: Microchloropsis gaditana, Tetraselmis chui and Chlorella vulgaris. Foods 2021, 10, 3078. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123078

AMA Style

Qazi WM, Ballance S, Kousoulaki K, Uhlen AK, Kleinegris DMM, Skjånes K, Rieder A. Protein Enrichment of Wheat Bread with Microalgae: Microchloropsis gaditana, Tetraselmis chui and Chlorella vulgaris. Foods. 2021; 10(12):3078. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123078

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qazi, Waqas Muhammad, Simon Ballance, Katerina Kousoulaki, Anne Kjersti Uhlen, Dorinde M. M. Kleinegris, Kari Skjånes, and Anne Rieder. 2021. "Protein Enrichment of Wheat Bread with Microalgae: Microchloropsis gaditana, Tetraselmis chui and Chlorella vulgaris" Foods 10, no. 12: 3078. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123078

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop