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Theoretical Studies of Nickel-Dependent Enzymes
Open AccessArticle

Preliminary Characterization of a Ni2+-Activated and Mycothiol-Dependent Glyoxalase I Enzyme from Streptomyces coelicolor

Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, 25/25 Phutthamonthon 4 Rd., Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Inorganics 2019, 7(8), 99;
Received: 6 July 2019 / Revised: 1 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinorganic Chemistry of Nickel)
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The glyoxalase system consists of two enzymes, glyoxalase I (Glo1) and glyoxalase II (Glo2), and converts a hemithioacetal substrate formed between a cytotoxic alpha-ketoaldehyde, such as methylglyoxal (MG), and an intracellular thiol, such as glutathione, to a non-toxic alpha-hydroxy acid, such as d-lactate, and the regenerated thiol. Two classes of Glo1 have been identified. The first is a Zn2+-activated class and is exemplified by the Homo sapiens Glo1. The second class is a Ni2+-activated enzyme and is exemplified by the Escherichia coli Glo1. Glutathione is the intracellular thiol employed by Glo1 from both these sources. However, many organisms employ other intracellular thiols. These include trypanothione, bacillithiol, and mycothiol. The trypanothione-dependent Glo1 from Leishmania major has been shown to be Ni2+-activated. Genetic studies on Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum focused on MG resistance have indicated the likely existence of Glo1 enzymes employing bacillithiol or mycothiol respectively, although no protein characterizations have been reported. The current investigation provides a preliminary characterization of an isolated mycothiol-dependent Glo1 from Streptomyces coelicolor. The enzyme has been determined to display a Ni2+-activation profile and indicates that Ni2+-activated Glo1 are indeed widespread in nature regardless of the intracellular thiol employed by an organism. View Full-Text
Keywords: glyoxalase; nickel; streptomyces; mycothiol; metalloenzyme glyoxalase; nickel; streptomyces; mycothiol; metalloenzyme

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Suttisansanee, U.; Honek, J.F. Preliminary Characterization of a Ni2+-Activated and Mycothiol-Dependent Glyoxalase I Enzyme from Streptomyces coelicolor. Inorganics 2019, 7, 99.

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