Multiple factors involving the methionine salvage pathway (MSP) and polyamine biosynthesis have been found to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. This review summarizes the relationships of the MSP enzyme acireductone dioxygenase (ARD), the ADI1
gene encoding ARD and other gene products (ADI1GP) with carcinomas and carcinogenesis. ARD exhibits structural and functional differences depending upon the metal bound in the active site. In the penultimate step of the MSP, the Fe2+
bound form of ARD catalyzes the on-pathway oxidation of acireductone leading to methionine, whereas Ni2+
bound ARD catalyzes an off-pathway reaction producing methylthiopropionate and carbon monoxide, a biological signaling molecule and anti-apoptotic. The relationship between ADI1GP, MSP and polyamine synthesis are discussed, along with possible role(s) of metal in modulating the cellular behavior of ADI1GP and its interactions with other cellular components.
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